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##### # /r/Peloton Pre-TDF Survey 2020

Gentlemen, Ladies and those otherwise addressed - we know you've been waiting for a good thing, and the survey results are finally ready!
The answers were collected from you all during August 2020 with 1428 unique replies. That's a participation of 0.5% of all subscribers! That's really not too bad, when you keep in mind how popular these kind of surveys are. But we here at /peloton want to show you that this is all about presenting the information in the subreddit to cater better to our audience!
Updated after a few hours to include some more historical data the final edit that for some reason wasn't copied properly
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2018 Mar 2018 Aug 2019 2020
Results 2013-06-12 2014-06-25 2015-08-07 2016-11-17 2018-03-06 2018-08-20 2019-07-22 2020-10-12
Replies 351 598 1395 892 630 928 986 1428
Without further ado, let's get cracking on the response

## You and Cycling

### 1. Where do you live?

Country 2015 2016 2018 Mar 2018 Aug 2019 2020
USA 32% 28.3% 22.84% 25.32% 20.23% 24.59%
UK 18.6% 17.6% 14.70% 20.13% 15.48% 14.80%
Netherlands 6.4% 9.4% 11.50% 11.58% 10.01% 11.01%
Germany 3.73% 3.4% 4.95% 6.39% 7.84% 6.65%
Denmark 3.9% 3.6% 4.31% 3.79% 7.64% 5.79%
Belgium 3.8% 2.7% 8.15% 3.57% 5.78% 5.36%
France 2.01% 1.08% 2.88% 2.27% 5.26% 3.50%
Canada 4.9% 7% 6.39% 4.22% 4.95% 4.50%
Australia 5.2% 4.7% 3.83% 4.00% 4.33% 3.93%
Slovenia 0.73% 0.32% 1.30% 1.14% 2.14%
Norway 2.58% 1.8% 1.60% 1.95% 2.58% 1.86%
Sweden 1.08% 1.09% 1.44% 1.41% 1.75% 1.43%
Ireland 1.00% 1.09% 1.44% 1.19% 0.72% 1.36%
Portugal 1.65% 1.8% 2.40% 1.52% 1.34% 1.14%
Italy 1.45% 1.44% 0.65% 1.03% 1.07%
Largely the same picture as ever, with the US leading the way, the UK in second and then a sliding scale of Europeans countries. Slovenia continues to pick its way up the pile for obvious reasons!
World Map to demonstrate

u17 17-19 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-50 51+ Total
2015 2.22% 12.04% 41.51% 24.66% 10.68% 4.87% 2.94% 1.08% 1395
2016 1.5% 8.9% 40.8% 24% 12% 5.4% 5.2% 2% 887
2018 Mar 1% 7.1% 33.5% 27.4% 16.2% 7% 5.7% 2.1% 617
2018 Aug 1.7% 9% 33.9% 26.4% 15.5% 7% 5% 1.5% 905
2019 1.5% 6.6% 33.2% 27.5% 16.4% 7.1% 5.8% 2% 972
2020 1.3% 6.8% 31.7% 28% 16.6% 7.2% 5% 2.5% 1420
Pretty much the same as last year, with the usual reddit demographics of majority 20 somethings dominating.

'13 '14 '15 '16 '18 (1) '18 (2) '19 '20
Male 97.2% 97% 94.9% 93.4% 93.3% 93.6% 95.1% 94.9%
Female 2.8% 2.7% 4.8% 5.3% 5.3% 5.4% 3.7% 4.8%
Other - 0.33% 0.29% 0.78% 0.76% - -
Non-Binary - - - - 0.64% 0.99% 1.2% 0.4%
More normality here for reddit.

### 4. How much of the men's season do you watch/follow?

Type March '18 (%) August '18 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
Grand Tours 84.7 92.0 90.2 87.3
Monuments 79.1 74.9 79 75.9
WT Stage races 67.4 62.4 70.5 71.7
WT One day races 73.3 59.8 62.3 60.7
Non WT Stage races 32.6 16.7 17.4 25
Non WT One day races 34.8 13.7 17.4 20.7
Literally everything I can consume 35.9 18.1 21.1 27.1
Whilst GT following may be down (somehow), all the lower level stuff is up, which makes sense considering how desperate we have been for any racing during the season shutdown.

### 5. Do you maintain an interest in women's professional road racing?

Do you maintain an interest in women's professional road racing? '19 '20
Yes 49.8 49.2
No 50.2 50.8
Still very much a half/half interest in women's cycling on the subreddit.

### 6. How much of the women's season do you follow?

The following is true for the half of you that follows womens cycling.
How Much %
Just the biggest televised events 63.15%
Most of the live televised/delayed coverage stuff 29.08%
All televised racing 5.09%
Down to .Pro & beyond 2.69%

### 7. How long have you been watching cycling?

How Long %
Under a year 2,95%
1-3 years 19,50%
4-6 years 19,85%
7-9 years 14,10%
10-12 years 13,81%
13-15 years 7,15%
15-20 years 10,73%
20-25 years 6,17%
25 years + 5,75%
Simplified the years a little this time, but whilst we have a fair number of newbies, most people have picked the sport up since around 2013/14.

# Sporting Favourites

### 8. Do you have like/dislike feelings about WT teams?

Once more, 14.4% of people really don't have feelings on the subject.
Of those that do:
AG2R Astana Bahrain Bora CCC Cofidis Quick-Step EF FDJ
Like 352 213 127 770 156 116 847 724 423
Meh 775 620 773 415 889 896 310 448 700
Dislike 52 356 263 31 112 141 71 37 53
Karma 300 -143 -70 739 44 -25 776 677 370
Israel Lotto Michelton Movistar NTT Ineos Jumbo Sunweb Trek UAE
Like 135 364 517 231 101 304 925 279 383 118
Meh 740 764 626 646 931 414 282 805 765 734
Dislike 302 40 52 326 121 562 53 97 42 331
Karma -167 324 465 -95 -20 -258 872 182 341 -213
So, the most popular team this year is Jumbo-Visma, followed by Quick-Step & Bora-hansgrohe. Least popular are Ineos & UAE.
As per usual, no one cares about NTT & CCC, with nearly 81% of users rating NTT as meh. Pretty damning stuff.
Lastly, we have the usual historical comparison of how teams have fared over time, normalised to respondents to that question on the survey.
Things to note then, firstly that the Astana redemption arc is over, seeing them back in the negative, maybe Fulgsangs spring issues helped aid that? The petrodollar teams of UAE & Bahrain are stubbornly negative too, with Israel keeping up the Katusha negative streak. Meanwhile, at the top end, EF & Jumbo go from strength to strength, whilst some others like Sunweb are sliding over time - their transfer policies no doubt helping that.

### 10. Do you ride a bike regularly?

For fun 61.5% 63.4% 59.9% 62.9%
For fitness 59.3% 59.6% 54.8% 59.8%
For commuting 46% 46% 45.6% 40%
For racing 20.6% 20.6% 15.9% 17.7%
No, I don't 14.2% 12.9% 14.8% 13.6%
Still a fairly small group of racers out of all of us

### 11. Out of the sports you practice, is cycling your favourite?

Yes No
58,29% 41,71%
A new addition to the survey prompted by a good point last time, just over half of us rate cycling as the favourite sport we actually do.

### 12. What other sports do you follow?

Sport #
Association Football / Soccer 50.78%
Formula 1 35.81%
American Football 26.27%
Track & Field 17.58%
Esports (yes, this includes DotA) 17.30%
Rugby 14.27%
Skiing 14.12%
Ice Hockey 13.63%
Baseball 12.15%
Motorsports (Not including F1) 10.59%
Cricket 10.52%
Tennis 9.53%
Chess 8.97%
Triathlon 8.69%
Biathlon 8.12%
Snooker 7.06%
Golf 6.92%
Swimming 6.85%
Ski Jumping 6.78%
Climbing 5.72%
Martial Arts 5.65%
Handball 5.44%
Darts 5.01%
Speed Skating 5.01%
Football always tops the charts, and Formula 1 continues to rank extremely highly among our userbase. Those who have a little following below 5% include Sailing, Fencing, Surfing, Boxing & Ultra-Running.
Other cycling disciplines
Sport #
Cyclocross 22.10%
Track Cycling 14.34%
MTB 8.97%
BMX 1.20%

### 13. Out of the sports you follow, is cycling your favourite sport?

Yes No
61.79% 38,21%
Good. Makes sense if you hang out here.

## Subreddit stats

### 14. How often do you participate in a /Peloton Race Thread whilst watching a race?

2015 2016 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
I always participate in Race Threads during races 2.8% 2% 2.2% 4% 2.5% 3%
I follow Race Threads during races 41.7% 36.7% 38.1% 42.1% 42.5% 38.9%
I often participate in Race Threads during races 16.8% 19% 16.5% 18.9% 15.2% 13%
I rarely/never participate in Race Threads during races 38.7% 41.3% 43.1% 35% 39.8% 45.1%
Slightly less invested than before, reverting back to an older trade.

### 15. How do you watch Races?

Method 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
Pirate Streams 62% 46.5% 50.2% 47.9%
Free Local TV 55.7% 64.5% 59.6% 53.9%
Desperately scrabbling for Youtube highlights 37.9% 30.2% 28.2% 24.9%
Paid Streaming services 32.3% 35.4% 38.3% 46.3%
Year on year, paid streaming services go up - the increasing availability of live content legally continues to improve, and so do the numbers on the survey.

### 16. Where else do you follow races live (in addition to watching them)?

Type 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
/Peloton race threads 86.2% 83.4% 80.2% 76.9%
PCS Liveticker - - 30.2% 32%
Official tracker (if available) 24%
The Cyclingnews liveticker 26% 23.5% 21.5% 18.9%
Sporza (site/ticker) 1.89% 9.5% 10.8% 10.8%
NOS Liveblog - 6.8% 7% 9.2%
Steephill 0.52% 13.5% 10.2% 8.2%
/Peloton discord 6.5% 5.4% 7.5% 7.2%
Other cycling forums 15.1% 8.1% 7.6% 7%
feltet.dk - 2.2% 5.4% 5.2%
BBC Ticker - 3.5% 2.1% 4.1%
DirectVelo - 1.3% 1.6% 1.8%
Non Cycling Forums - 1.3% 1.2% 1.2%
/cyc/ - 1.3% 1% 0.6%
/peloton IRC ~0 0.8% 0.4% 0.5%
The PCS liveticker continues to have a strong following, whilst the cyclingnews ticker slowly slides into less usage over time.

### 17. Do you use /Peloton mostly in classic reddit or redesign when on the desktop?

Type 2018 Aug 2019 2020
Classic 75.1% 67.2% 46.2%
Redesign 24.9% 32.8% 53.8%
Time to abandon ship. The end has come.

### 18. With what version of reddit do you browse the sub?

Version 2019 2020
Official App 17.9 31.1
Desktop Classic 37.8 25.8
3rd Party App 18.3 17.2
Mobile Web 12.4 14.7
Desktop Redesign 13.7 11.2
Phone browsing is very much in vogue.

### 19. How did you find the sub?

How %
Through other forms of reddit, f.e. /bicycling 48.33%
Too long - can't remember 38.65%
My friend told me 2,28%
I wanted to talk about my exercise bike 0.78%

## Other bits and bobs

### 20. Did you think back in March we would see any more racing this year?

Yes No
52,81% 47,19%
Despite the threat, we have seen racing again

### 21. Will we manage to fulfill the rest of the UCI calendar without further Covid-19 issues postponing more races?

Yes No
25.3% 74.7%
Sorry to you 25%, Amstel, Roubaix & a bunch of other races have falled foul of COVID-19 related cancellations.

### 22. When did you become aware of Alexander Foliforov?

When %
Before the 2016 Giro 3,25%
22nd May, 2016 15,55%
On /pelotonmemes in 2020 21,13%
Who? 60,07%
If you didn't know of the man, watching him demolish the Giro field in 2016 on the stage 15 ITT should help to gain understanding

### 23. Who will win the 2020 Tour de France?

Rider %
Roglic 52,12%
Bernal 16,57%
Pinot 9,24%
Dumoulin 7,9%
N.Quintana 2,82%
Pogacar 1,41%
Richie Porte 0,35%
That's not a lot of confidence in Richie Porte either, the man who was to finish on the third spot of the podium. Alexander Foliforov (0,23%) had just a tiny number of votes less, and that man wasn't even in the race.

### 24. What for you was the defining cycling moment of the previous decade?

We had a lot of brilliant suggestions, but these were the clear five favourites when we tabulated the results.
• 2018 Giro - Chris Froome Solo Attack
• 2016 TDF - Chris Froome Running up Ventoux
• 2019 TDF - Landslides, First Columbian Winner, Pinot's bitter abandon - This was one race for the ages
• 2016 Paris-Roubaix - Mostly known for Tom Boonen losing. Also, some guy called Mat won.
• 2019 AGR - MvdP with his incredible catch-up for the win.
Honorable mentions go to the Giro 2018, which had Tom Dumoulin winning, and of almost identical fascination to many of you - Tom Dumoulin going on someones porta-potty in the middle of the stage.
Little bit of recency bias perhaps, but that's better than ignoring that this was for the last decade and firmly insisting Tom Boonens 2005 WC win was the biggest thing. Special shoutout to almost all the Danes present in /peloton who voted for Mads Pedersens WC win last year. It's an understandable reaction.

### 25. Any suggestions for the Survey?

New Questions
• Could you add a section on rider popularity, same as for the teams?
• Ask how people became interested in cycling
• Ask how people watch cycling (e.g. TV Channels/Streaming etc.)
• If you could be an animal for one day, which one would it be?
• Would you wear a facemask while watching a cycling race live?
• Which race do you look forward to see the most every year?
• Favourite riders of your own country?
• How many bikes do you own?
We promise to feature one of these suggestions in the next survey
Suggestions
• Always have a “no” or “not interested” option
We will try to implement this. But it will also skew results.
• More questions about womens cycling would be nice.
• Less questions about womens cycling
The subscribers are torn on Women's cycling, nearly a 50/50 split there as the survey showed - The moderators at /peloton are firmly in the "more cycling is better" basket, and we will continue to get as good coverage of womens cycling as possible.
Are you trying to give the moderators PTSD? Because this is how you give the moderators PTSD.

## 26. Any suggestions for the sub?

• More stationary fitness bike related content
ALSJFLKAJSLDKJAØLSJKD:M:CSAM)=#/()=#=/")¤=/)! - Your moderator seems to be out of function. Please stand by while we find you a new moderator
• Beginner guides
The Weekly threads are great for these types of questions, where several people can contribute and build up once it is understood which information is relevant.
• Allow limited doping talk in result threads.
Our experience is that "limited" will never be so, if we're going to moderate it fairly. Moderating is not a popularity contest, but believe it or not, we're actually trying to be as fair as possible. and for that, we need rules that are not subjective. Unless you have a stationary exercise bike.
• Written original content is always great - recaps, old race reviews or interesting rider bios, etc.
• Podcast discussion?
• Try and do some AMAs with pro cyclists, coaches, trainers, etc
All of these are good suggestions, but remember that all of you can also contribute - The mods are sometimes stretched thin, specially in the middle of hectic race schedules. It's easier if one of you has a way to contact a rider or a person of interest and can facilitate the initial communication.
• Standardize major event thread titles for better search.
We've worked on this! The Official Standard is now as follows: [Race Thread] 202x Race Name – Stage X (Class)
• A wiki that explains how races work. Roles of diff riders/support staff. History of racing.
This sounds as a nice community project for the after-season, and hopefully many of you subscribers can contribute.
• Tidy up the sidebar!
Come with suggestions on how to tidy it up!
• Don't assume everyone reading is a man, "thanks, bro". But that goes for all of Reddit. I know you can't fix that.
We have chastised all the mods. They are now perfectly trained in gender-neutral pronouns. Be well, fellow being.
• Have a buy you a beer link for the mods for all the work you do.
If we can implement this for hard liquor, you know we will.
• Remove the spoiler rule during grand tours. It kills the hype.
The spoiler rule is one that is discussed frequently - in general - some users absolutely hate it, but a majority love it. Perhaps we'll include a question in the next survey to see how this divide is exactly.
• Lose the spoiler tag when it is for serious things; Lambrecht death, Jakobsen fall.
We actually do - whenever there is a matter of life or death, we think public information is more important than a spoiler rule. But at the same time, we try to collect all the different posts into one main thread, so to keep things focused and letting very speculative posts meet with hard evidence from other sources.
• Less downvoting of opinions that differ from the fashionable consensus.
This is a tough ask of the internet. While we can agree that voting should be done accordingly to what insights they bring, not subjective opinions, it is very hard to turn that type of thinking around. We can ask of you, our subscribers, that you please think twice about hitting that downvote button, and only do so because of you think a post is factually incorrect, not because it differs with your own subjective opinion.
That's the primary analysis of the survey! Feel free to contribute with how you experience things here!

##### No gods, no kings, only NOPE - or divining the future with options flows. [Part 3: Hedge Winding, Unwinding, and the NOPE]

Hello friends!
We're on the last post of this series ("A Gentle Introduction to NOPE"), where we get to use all the Big Boy Concepts (TM) we've discussed in the prior posts and put them all together. Some words before we begin:
1. This post will be massively theoretical, in the sense that my own speculation and inferences will be largely peppered throughout the post. Are those speculations right? I think so, or I wouldn't be posting it, but they could also be incorrect.
2. I will briefly touch on using the NOPE this slide, but I will make a secondary post with much more interesting data and trends I've observed. This is primarily for explaining what NOPE is and why it potentially works, and what it potentially measures.
My advice before reading this is to glance at my prior posts, and either read those fully or at least make sure you understand the tl;drs:
Depending on popular demand, I will also make a last-last post called FAQ, where I'll tabulate interesting questions you guys ask me in the comments!
---
So a brief recap before we begin.
Market Maker ("Mr. MM"): An individual or firm who makes money off the exchange fees and bid-ask spread for an asset, while usually trying to stay neutral about the direction the asset moves.
Delta-gamma hedging: The process Mr. MM uses to stay neutral when selling you shitty OTM options, by buying/selling shares (usually) of the underlying as the price moves.
Law of Surprise [Lily-ism]: Effectively, the expected profit of an options trade is zero for both the seller and the buyer.
Random Walk: A special case of a deeper probability probability called a martingale, which basically models stocks or similar phenomena randomly moving every step they take (for stocks, roughly every millisecond). This is one of the most popular views of how stock prices move, especially on short timescales.
Future Expected Payoff Function [Lily-ism]: This is some hidden function that every market participant has about an asset, which more or less models all the possible future probabilities/values of the assets to arrive at a "fair market price". This is a more generalized case of a pricing model like Black-Scholes, or DCF.
Counter-party: The opposite side of your trade (if you sell an option, they buy it; if you buy an option, they sell it).
Price decoherence ]Lily-ism]: A more generalized notion of IV Crush, price decoherence happens when instead of the FEPF changing gradually over time (price formation), the FEPF rapidly changes, due usually to new information being added to the system (e.g. Vermin Supreme winning the 2020 election).
---
One of the most popular gambling events for option traders to play is earnings announcements, and I do owe the concept of NOPE to hypothesizing specifically about the behavior of stock prices at earnings. Much like a black hole in quantum mechanics, most conventional theories about how price should work rapidly break down briefly before, during, and after ER, and generally experienced traders tend to shy away from playing earnings, given their similar unpredictability.
Before we start: what is NOPE? NOPE is a funny backronym from Net Options Pricing Effect, which in its most basic sense, measures the impact option delta has on the underlying price, as compared to share price. When I first started investigating NOPE, I called it OPE (options pricing effect), but NOPE sounds funnier.
The formula for it is dead simple, but I also have no idea how to do LaTeX on reddit, so this is the best I have:

https://preview.redd.it/ais37icfkwt51.png?width=826&format=png&auto=webp&s=3feb6960f15a336fa678e945d93b399a8e59bb49
Since I've already encountered this, put delta in this case is the absolute value (50 delta) to represent a put. If you represent put delta as a negative (the conventional way), do not subtract it; add it.
To keep this simple for the non-mathematically minded: the NOPE today is equal to the weighted sum (weighted by volume) of the delta of every call minus the delta of every put for all options chains extending from today to infinity. Finally, we then divide that number by the # of shares traded today in the market session (ignoring pre-market and post-market, since options cannot trade during those times).
Effectively, NOPE is a rough and dirty way to approximate the impact of delta-gamma hedging as a function of share volume, with us hand-waving the following factors:
1. To keep calculations simple, we assume that all counter-parties are hedged. This is obviously not true, especially for idiots who believe theta ganging is safe, but holds largely true especially for highly liquid tickers, or tickers will designated market makers (e.g. any ticker in the NASDAQ, for instance).
2. We assume that all hedging takes place via shares. For SPY and other products tracking the S&P, for instance, market makers can actually hedge via futures or other options. This has the benefit for large positions of not moving the underlying price, but still makes up a fairly small amount of hedges compared to shares.

# Winding and Unwinding

I briefly touched on this in a past post, but two properties of NOPE seem to apply well to EER-like behavior (aka any binary catalyst event):
1. NOPE measures sentiment - In general, the options market is seen as better informed than share traders (e.g. insiders trade via options, because of leverage + easier to mask positions). Therefore, a heavy call/put skew is usually seen as a bullish sign, while the reverse is also true.
2. NOPE measures system stability
I'm not going to one-sentence explain #2, because why say in one sentence what I can write 1000 words on. In short, NOPE intends to measure sensitivity of the system (the ticker) to disruption. This makes sense, when you view it in the context of delta-gamma hedging. When we assume all counter-parties are hedged, this means an absolutely massive amount of shares get sold/purchased when the underlying price moves. This is because of the following:
a) Assume I, Mr. MM sell 1000 call options for NKLA 25C 10/23 and 300 put options for NKLA 15p 10/23. I'm just going to make up deltas because it's too much effort to calculate them - 30 delta call, 20 delta put.
This implies Mr. MM needs the following to delta hedge: (1000 call options * 30 shares to buy for each) [to balance out writing calls) - (300 put options * 20 shares to sell for each) = 24,000 net shares Mr. MM needs to acquire to balance out his deltas/be fully neutral.
b) This works well when NKLA is at $20. But what about when it hits$19 (because it only can go down, just like their trucks). Thanks to gamma, now we have to recompute the deltas, because they've changed for both the calls (they went down) and for the puts (they went up).
Let's say to keep it simple that now my calls are 20 delta, and my puts are 30 delta. From the 24,000 net shares, Mr. MM has to now have:
(1000 call options * 20 shares to have for each) - (300 put options * 30 shares to sell for each) = 11,000 shares.
Therefore, with a $1 shift in price, now to hedge and be indifferent to direction, Mr. MM has to go from 24,000 shares to 11,000 shares, meaning he has to sell 13,000 shares ASAP, or take on increased risk. Now, you might be saying, "13,000 shares seems small. How would this disrupt the system?" (This process, by the way, is called hedge unwinding) It won't, in this example. But across thousands of MMs and millions of contracts, this can - especially in highly optioned tickers - make up a substantial fraction of the net flow of shares per day. And as we know from our desk example, the buying or selling of shares directly changes the price of the stock itself. This, by the way, is why the NOPE formula takes the shape it does. Some astute readers might notice it looks similar to GEX, which is not a coincidence. GEX however replaces daily volume with open interest, and measures gamma over delta, which I did not find good statistical evidence to support, especially for earnings. So, with our example above, why does NOPE measure system stability? We can assume for argument's sake that if someone buys a share of NKLA, they're fine with moderate price swings (+-$20 since it's NKLA, obviously), and in it for the long/medium haul. And in most cases this is fine - we can own stock and not worry about minor swings in price. But market makers can't* (they can, but it exposes them to risk), because of how delta works. In fact, for most institutional market makers, they have clearly defined delta limits by end of day, and even small price changes require them to rebalance their hedges.
This over the whole market adds up to a lot shares moving, just to balance out your stupid Robinhood YOLOs. While there are some tricks (dark pools, block trades) to not impact the price of the underlying, the reality is that the more options contracts there are on a ticker, the more outsized influence it will have on the ticker's price. This can technically be exactly balanced, if option put delta is equal to option call delta, but never actually ends up being the case. And unlike shares traded, the shares representing the options are more unstable, meaning they will be sold/bought in response to small price shifts. And will end up magnifying those price shifts, accordingly.

# NOPE and Earnings

So we have a new shiny indicator, NOPE. What does it actually mean and do?
There's much literature going back to the 1980s that options markets do have some level of predictiveness towards earnings, which makes sense intuitively. Unlike shares markets, where you can continue to hold your share even if it dips 5%, in options you get access to expanded opportunity to make riches... and losses. An options trader betting on earnings is making a risky and therefore informed bet that he or she knows the outcome, versus a share trader who might be comfortable bagholding in the worst case scenario.
As I've mentioned largely in comments on my prior posts, earnings is a special case because, unlike popular misconceptions, stocks do not go up and down solely due to analyst expectations being meet, beat, or missed. In fact, stock prices move according to the consensus market expectation, which is a function of all the participants' FEPF on that ticker. This is why the price moves so dramatically - even if a stock beats, it might not beat enough to justify the high price tag (FSLY); even if a stock misses, it might have spectacular guidance or maybe the market just was assuming it would go bankrupt instead.
To look at the impact of NOPE and why it may play a role in post-earnings-announcement immediate price moves, let's review the following cases:
1. Stock Meets/Exceeds Market Expectations (aka price goes up) - In the general case, we would anticipate post-ER market participants value the stock at a higher price, pushing it up rapidly. If there's a high absolute value of NOPE on said ticker, this should end up magnifying the positive move since:
a) If NOPE is high negative - This means a ton of put buying, which means a lot of those puts are now worthless (due to price decoherence). This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to close out their sold/shorted shares, buying them, and pushing the stock price up.
b) If NOPE is high positive - This means a ton of call buying, which means a lot of puts are now worthless (see a) but also a lot of calls are now worth more. This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to close out their sold/shorted shares AND also buy more shares to cover their calls, pushing the stock price up.
2) Stock Meets/Misses Market Expectations (aka price goes down) - Inversely to what I mentioned above, this should push to the stock price down, fairly immediately. If there's a high absolute value of NOPE on said ticker, this should end up magnifying the negative move since:
a) If NOPE is high negative - This means a ton of put buying, which means a lot of those puts are now worth more, and a lot of calls are now worth less/worth less (due to price decoherence). This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to sell/short more shares, pushing the stock price down.
b) If NOPE is high positive - This means a ton of call buying, which means a lot of calls are now worthless (see a) but also a lot of puts are now worth more. This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to sell even more shares to keep their calls and puts neutral, pushing the stock price down.
---
Based on the above two cases, it should be a bit more clear why NOPE is a measure of sensitivity to system perturbation. While we previously discussed it in the context of magnifying directional move, the truth is it also provides a directional bias to our "random" walk. This is because given a price move in the direction predicted by NOPE, we expect it to be magnified, especially in situations of price decoherence. If a stock price goes up right after an ER report drops, even based on one participant deciding to value the stock higher, this provides a runaway reaction which boosts the stock price (due to hedging factors as well as other participants' behavior) and inures it to drops.

I'm going to gloss over this section because this is more statistical methods than anything interesting. In general, if you have enough data, I recommend using NOPE_MAD over NOPE. While NOPE in theory represents a "real" quantity (net option delta over net share delta), NOPE_MAD (the median absolute deviation of NOPE) does not. NOPE_MAD simply answecompare the following:
1. How exceptional is today's NOPE versus historic baseline (30 days prior)?
2. How do I compare two tickers' NOPEs effectively (since some tickers, like TSLA, have a baseline positive NOPE, because Elon memes)? In the initial stages, we used just a straight numerical threshold (let's say NOPE >= 20), but that quickly broke down. NOPE_MAD aims to detect anomalies, because anomalies in general give you tendies.
I might add the formula later in Mathenese, but simply put, to find NOPE_MAD you do the following:
1. Calculate today's NOPE score (this can be done end of day or intraday, with the true value being EOD of course)
2. Calculate the end of day NOPE scores on the ticker for the previous 30 trading days
3. Compute the median of the previous 30 trading days' NOPEs
4. From the median, find the 30 days' median absolute deviation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_absolute_deviation)
5. Find today's deviation as compared to the MAD calculated by: [(today's NOPE) - (median NOPE of last 30 days)] / (median absolute deviation of last 30 days)
This is usually reported as sigma (σ), and has a few interesting properties:
1. The mean of NOPE_MAD for any ticker is almost exactly 0.
2. [Lily's Speculation's Speculation] NOPE_MAD acts like a spring, and has a tendency to reverse direction as a function of its magnitude. No proof on this yet, but exploring it!

# Using the NOPE to predict ER

So the last section was a lot of words and theory, and a lot of what I'm mentioning here is empirically derived (aka I've tested it out, versus just blabbered).
In general, the following holds true:
1. 3 sigma NOPE_MAD tends to be "the threshold": For very low NOPE_MAD magnitudes (+- 1 sigma), it's effectively just noise, and directionality prediction is low, if not non-existent. It's not exactly like 3 sigma is a play and 2.9 sigma is not a play; NOPE_MAD accuracy increases as NOPE_MAD magnitude (either positive or negative) increases.
2. NOPE_MAD is only useful on highly optioned tickers: In general, I introduce another parameter for sifting through "candidate" ERs to play: option volume * 100/share volume. When this ends up over let's say 0.4, NOPE_MAD provides a fairly good window into predicting earnings behavior.
3. NOPE_MAD only predicts during the after-market/pre-market session: I also have no idea if this is true, but my hunch is that next day behavior is mostly random and driven by market movement versus earnings behavior. NOPE_MAD for now only predicts direction of price movements right between the release of the ER report (AH or PM) and the ending of that market session. This is why in general I recommend playing shares, not options for ER (since you can sell during the AH/PM).
4. NOPE_MAD only predicts direction of price movement: This isn't exactly true, but it's all I feel comfortable stating given the data I have. On observation of ~2700 data points of ER-ticker events since Mar 2019 (SPY 500), I only so far feel comfortable predicting whether stock price goes up (>0 percent difference) or down (<0 price difference). This is +1 for why I usually play with shares.
Some statistics:
#0) As a baseline/null hypothesis, after ER on the SPY500 since Mar 2019, 50-51% price movements in the AH/PM are positive (>0) and ~46-47% are negative (<0).
#1) For NOPE_MAD >= +3 sigma, roughly 68% of price movements are positive after earnings.
#2) For NOPE_MAD <= -3 sigma, roughly 29% of price movements are positive after earnings.
#3) When using a logistic model of only data including NOPE_MAD >= +3 sigma or NOPE_MAD <= -3 sigma, and option/share vol >= 0.4 (around 25% of all ERs observed), I was able to achieve 78% predictive accuracy on direction.

Like all models, NOPE is wrong, but perhaps useful. It's also fairly new (I started working on it around early August 2020), and in fact, my initial hypothesis was exactly incorrect (I thought the opposite would happen, actually). Similarly, as commenters have pointed out, the timeline of data I'm using is fairly compressed (since Mar 2019), and trends and models do change. In fact, I've noticed significantly lower accuracy since the coronavirus recession (when I measured it in early September), but I attribute this mostly to a smaller date range, more market volatility, and honestly, dumber option traders (~65% accuracy versus nearly 80%).
My advice so far if you do play ER with the NOPE method is to use it as following:
1. Buy/short shares approximately right when the market closes before ER. Ideally even buying it right before the earnings report drops in the AH session is not a bad idea if you can.
2. Sell/buy to close said shares at the first sign of major weakness (e.g. if the NOPE predicted outcome is incorrect).
3. Sell/buy to close shares even if it is correct ideally before conference call, or by the end of the after-market/pre-market session.
4. Only play tickers with high NOPE as well as high option/share vol.
---
In my next post, which may be in a few days, I'll talk about potential use cases for SPY and intraday trends, but I wanted to make sure this wasn't like 7000 words by itself.
Cheers.
- Lily

# MAKE MONEY WITH TRADING (Forex, Stocks, Binary Options)

https://preview.redd.it/onvu1owbn2v51.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=63508b4c3653556bc53e4ef2df86a29df5e5dd0b
Trading consists of buying and selling assets, such as stocks, futures, currencies or derivatives, in a financial market. To trade, so that we obtain benefits, we will have to speculate with the movements in the price of the assets. This is the first step to making money from trading.
The word trading is usually associated with short-term investments, that is, short operations that seek benefits limited to a small time frame.
In other words, trading and investing are the same, only the time frame changes.
So if you hear terms like "stock trading" or "stock trading" it is the same thing, only they usually refer to different time frames.
The person who invests or trades is called a trader. A trader then is someone who invests in the financial markets.
As you can see I am adding several concepts so that we all start from the same base.
So, trading is basically buying and selling assets, trying to buy at the lowest possible price and sell as high as possible. As simple as that.
By advanced trader I mean someone who already knows how to trade but that doesn't necessarily make him a winning trader. In most cases they apply complicated strategies and forget something as simple as the bases.
How much can a trader earn? You put the roof on it, there is no limit. I recommend you measure your progress in percentages and not in nominals. It is best to verify your progress.
Is it necessary to be in a Trading Academy? Like everything, there are some who like to be social and others who prefer to work in a self-taught way. In trading, it is the same. If you need the constant support of people to not be demotivated, then a Trading Academy is a good option. Now, if you are an already motivated person who only needs to clear up doubts, then the best thing is a mentor, consulting professional, or a trading teacher who clears your doubts.
The foundations for making money trading have to be solid if we want to make profits consistently. So today I want to emphasize that, the foundations of being a successful trader. Let us begin!

# How to Make Money Trading Reddit - Key Steps

https://preview.redd.it/la3o4919o2v51.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=02e5635985796aa609c9ed4848285b4ce69f1196
Buying in supports is buying in a key area where the price exerts a certain friction preventing the price from continuing to advance, for whatever reason.
A support is nothing more than an area where the asset finds the confidence of investors, it is the level where they estimate that it is a good purchase price for them, and that is why they buy the asset in question, in such a way that the asset finds help in that level.
Most trading systems, at least the ones I know of which are a few, are based on this principle but what happens, they camouflage it with flourishes.
Instead of saying, to the purchase in supports, they add colored mirrors so that it does not look so simple.
I'm not saying that details are not good, but exaggeration of details can lead to confusion and later paralysis.
Systems must necessarily be simple.
Buying in stands not only improves your overall entry, but it drastically lowers your risks. The further we move away from a support, the more the risk increases.
Many times we end up buying halfway because the price "escaped" us and we think that we will not have another equal opportunity. The reality is that the market always provides opportunities for those who know how to wait.
There is a saying that the beginning trader has fun in the market, the professional trader gets bored.
This does not mean that the professional trader does things reluctantly, or that he does not like to invest. It means that the professional trader waits crouched, calm, for that opportunity that he is looking for appears, that entry into support that reduces his risk. While the novice trader enters and exits the market euphoric.
A professional trader can be in front of the screen all day and not make a single trade. The novice trader, on the other hand, if he spends more than 5 minutes without trading, he already feels bad, anxious and thinks that he is losing opportunities.
2) Execute stop loss
Holding losses is the biggest mistake of traders. Who in the beginning has not moved the stop loss because the operation moved against him?
It's a very common mistake. We enter the market, we put the stop, the operation turns against us and instead of executing the stop, we RUN IT!
We are camicaces.
The typical phrase "I'm waiting to recover" has burned entire wallets.
The market fell 40% and instead of leaving, they began to pray.
The great advantage of small portfolios, that is, investors with little capital, is flexibility and speed of reaction.
By running the stop loss you are losing the only advantage you have with respect to professionals and large investors. Because they sure have more capital and have wider margins.
Please don't take losses, don't run the stop loss.
If you miss the stop, distance yourself from the market and analyze why that happened to you for the next better place your stop.
3) Sell in resistonce
I want you to remember something. Until you sell, the profits are not yours.
Until you sell, you have no money.
Until you sell, you cannot say that the operation was successful.
Many traders are very good at finding entries. They perfectly see the supports and manage to enter at the best prices. But what happens to them, they don't sell.
It hits a key resistance, where price clearly can't break through and what they do, they hold out in case it breaks.
The worst, the price does not break or make an upthrust (which would be a kind of professional feint), it returns to support, it bounces, it goes back to resistance and what we do ... we wait again to see if it breaks, because now it is the correct.
And there is a worse case. It reaches resistance and we want to apply the phrase "let the profits run", so what do we do, we adjust the stop loss near the resistance in case the price breaks and continues.
The price tests the resistance, falls, touches our stop and we run it in case the price returns to the path. Instead of applying the phrase “let the profits run” we apply the phrase “let the losses run”.
An old master used to say, when the price reaches resistance, I collect my winnings and go on vacation.
It seems silly but it is a way of telling our brain, if you do things well you have a prize.
Sell ​​in resistance, the market always gives new opportunities.
4) The Trend is your friend
No better elaborated phrase. The trend is your friend. And as we all know, almost no one pays attention to their friends. We ask them for advice and if they don't say what we want to hear, we won't.
If the price goes up, where do you have to invest?
"It is not that the price was stretched too much and surely now a correction is coming, so I invest against it."
You are seeing that the trend is upward in an annual, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly and minute time frame, but just in case you invest against it.
Please, the trend is your friend, if it tells you that the price is going up, it is because it is going up.
I invested in favor of the trend. You do not want to beat the market because I assure you that it breaks your arm in a blink of an eye.
In the financial markets there are no certainties, only probabilities and whoever tells you otherwise is surely not winning in silver.
What we are looking for are windows of statistical opportunities. In other words, we try to turn the odds in our favor.
That is why it is always important to ask yourself the question, what is more likely, that the price will go up or down?
This is because many times we operate and do not realize that the odds are against us.
We can never be 100% certain, but just putting the odds in our favor by making concrete decisions based on logic and not on emotions can earn us a lot of money.
6) Consistency
You often see many traders showing one or two of their most successful trades and the occasional loss. This is good for teaching purposes, and it is useful for transmitting teachings.
But if you want to become a professional trader you need consistency. And consistency does not speak of an isolated operation, it speaks of sustained profits over time.
And when I say time I speak of years. Not a month, not a week, not a semester. 3 years, 5 years, 10 years, 20 years.
To give you an idea, ultra-professional traders fight to see who is more consistent.
In other words, the first question they ask themselves is how many years have you been winning?
A trader who every year earns a tight, modest percentage, reasonable to say the least, but consistently, is a much better professional than one who doubles the capital one year and the other is -90.
Consistency is highly treasured as it allows for simulations, strategizing, and even projections.
The number of traders who invest without having a trading plan is impressive. Something so important, so simple to make, so useful and very few use it.
A trading plan allows you to analyze your operations, see what you are doing, and then improve.
When we don't have a trading plan, what we did last week goes completely unnoticed because we can't internalize the teaching.
And when I speak of teachings, they can be gains or losses.
A loss allows us to adjust the plan but a success also.
In fact, when we have several successful operations, there is nothing better than taking their teachings and replicating them.
The trading plan is the only tool that allows us to do this, learn, improve and be the most objective possible, leaving aside emotions.

https://preview.redd.it/ljyjklqgo2v51.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c50d6af6b81521fbbfe25938c98971e1592de261
When it comes to the currency market, one of the most popular trading markets is Forex. It represents the world's largest decentralized currency market. So we will answer how to make money from forex trading.
With only having a computer, tablet or mobile phone, and an excellent internet connection service, you will be able to operate from anywhere in the world in the Forex market. It has the great strength of being flexible and adaptable to all types of investors.
Select a prominent broker or intermediary agent, one that is recognized and very professional. Conduct negotiation trials with him, so that you get to know each other and do not put your capital at risk.
Develop together the work style that most identifies you and decide to earn money by trading, enriching yourself with all the possible knowledge and strategies.
Acquire strengths in detecting the ideal moment to carry out operations. You will achieve this by studying and understanding the graphs and trends of transactions, detecting that unique pattern that tells you when is the right time to proceed.
Do not hesitate, it is possible to earn a lot of money with trading! But, make sure, above all things, train yourself with a duly accredited professional, in guarantee of acquiring quality theoretical knowledge, imperative to understand the movement of the market.

# How to Make Money Trading Reddit - Final Words

Trading is an “investment vehicle” that can serve your objectives of having financial peace of mind as long as it is part of a broad economic and financial planning in the short, medium and long term. If not, trading can become a fast track to lose your money, if you lack the necessary knowledge, experience and training. Follow the following formula to Make Money in Trading Consistently:

### Profitability = (Knowledge + experience) x emotional and mental management

##### Student Loan Default: The Guide (ReUploaded)

NOTE: I'm pasting this guide from where I originally found it, over on Studentloandefaulters. It was originally pasted there from someone who found it after the original was deleted.

# Student Loan Default: The Guide (reuploaded)

📷
The original guide that was recently deleted here: https://www.reddit.com/studentloandefaulters/comments/cg1fd7/student_loan_default_a_guide/
I take no credit for this post, just happened to have it saved in a document and thought I'd be doing an injustice by not sharing this information once I saw the original post was missing! All credit goes to the original author, and without further ado...
Student Loan Default: A Guide
I’ve been wanting to write this for a long time, and seeing that person be in $500,000 of debt and no one really helping him on studentloans, I felt it was time to summarize everything I’ve learned. While there is great information on this sub, it is not centralized. It requires some digging. I hope now to bring all of it to the surface. Definitions: Strategic Default: When a borrower realizes that he or she can spend less money by not paying a loan. The borrower waits out the statute of limitations and then either settles or waits the debt out. Shills: People who are paid to prevent the spread of student loan default information Statute of Limitations: The number of years your state requires before a debt can no longer be collected. Cosigner: The poor person who is just as legally required to pay your loans as you are Foreign Earned Income Tax Exclusion: A tax rule that states any US citizen can earn up to about$100,000 a year in another country and report their US taxes as 0.
Fraudulent Transfer: When a party tries to move assets to someone else in order to avoid a lien on their property.
Lien: Essentially when the government slaps a bill onto your property forcing you to pay off a debt before you can sell the property.
Income Based Repayment (IBR): Federal loans can be paid with 15% of your discretionary income (money earned after taxes) instead of a higher, unpayable amount
Aggregate Student Loan Limit: The total amount a student can take out before the federal government or a private lender stops authorizing new loans
Wage Garnishment: When a court forces your employer to take out a certain percentage of your paycheck to pay back a debt
Bank Levy: When the government or a court takes all of the money directly out of your bank account to pay a debt
Private Loans: Loans that originate from anyone but the federal government. These loans have a statute of limitations and less power but higher interest rates.
Federal Loans: These loans have no statute of limitations, the government can collect anything you earn to get these back, and they come with IBR which is manageable
Sallie Mae: The worst private lender on the market. They only offer deferment for four short years.
Forbearance: A period where you do not have to pay your student loans, but interest accrues.
Deferment: A period where you do not have to pay your student loans, but interest does not accrue.
Credit Score: A number that tells people how responsible of a borrower you are.
Student Loan Tax Bomb: After you have paid for 10 - 25 years on your federal loans, you are forgiven the rest. That is considered income by the IRS. You then add this “income” to your regular income for the year and pay the tax. It can be over $10,000. Insolvency: When you are unable to pay your debts. This works well for defusing the student loan tax bomb. Public Service Loan Forgiveness: If you work for 10 years at a government job, you can get your entire federal student loan balance forgiven. In 2019, the feds are making it near impossible to collect. This could change. A note on cosigners before we begin: Look, your cosigner is probably going to be very mad at you. Prepare for your relationship to be strained. You need to try and get them on the same page as you, and I do offer a tactic here to at least shift all of the financial burden off of your cosigner below. If you decide to do any of these tactics without getting your cosigner off the hook, there could be more risk involved if you or your cosigners have a lot of assets. Strategy Student loan default is a strategy. And to have a good strategy, one must plan as much as possible. You have to know all of your options. While strategy is your overall game plan, tactics are the individual options you have to get your strategy accomplished. Below are the tactics that you can employ to beat the student loan companies. Tactics Paying Your Loans: [low risk] In the rare chance you have anywhere between$1,000 to $20,000 in federal student loans and you have completed your bachelor’s degree, you should probably just pay the damn loans. All you have to do is set up an auto debit and forget about it. It will be about 15% of your income. You really want to try and avoid consolidating if you can, because it will count against some of your IBR payments. You would also lose your grace period if you did this. At the end of 10 to 25 years, you will be forgiven all of the loan amount you did not pay. That forgiven amount is considered income by the IRS, so you will be put into a higher tax bracket. I would get an accountant when this comes. In your case, your tax bomb will be low enough where you could probably just pay it. If you want to really shake things up though, you are welcome to try either the Asset Creation Tactic or the Madlad Method below. Here is more information on Income Based Repayment: https://www.studentdebtrelief.us/repayment-plans/income-based-repayment-plan/ Default Private IBR Federal (Staying Put): [low risk] The standard strategy here on studentloandefaulters. As mentioned above, for the federal loans, it’s best to just IBR and automatically debit your bank account each month and forget about it. For the private loans, this is where the game begins. Your overall plan here is to default, wait out the statute of limitations in your home state, and either settle the debt for less than 30% or just hope they leave you alone and you don’t pay at all. From this moment on, whatever you would have paid for your private monthly bill, sock that money away. Once you go past 120 days of no payments, you are in default. This is where the phone calls come in. They will start to harass you. They will call your work, your cell phone, your cosigner, etc relentlessly. Most likely, they’ll start doing this before you get to default. As they call you, you can either just give them the cold shoulder or start immediately acting like you do not own the debt. Never admit that you own the debt. Tell them you think they are crazy and have the wrong person. Inform your cosigner to do the same. Once your loans are sold to a collection agency, wait until they call you and ask for verification of the debt. If they do not provide it, you won. Chances are, they will be able to verify it, so just make sure you never admit to the debt on the phone or make a payment. If you make a payment, you’ll reset the statute of limitations. Do not give them five dollars, two dollars, a penny. If they do sue you, show up for court. Get a lawyer if you can afford it. You have to show up to court, or they win automatically. Even if you don’t have a lawyer in court, you need to make them verify the debt. You could still lose here. If you do lose in court, go to my tactic of “The Cat and Mouse Game.” They are playing a numbers game, and if you are harder to sue than John Smith down the street, they may prey on him or her instead of you. Now, there are four states in the United States that do not have wage garnishment: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. You could move there, and if you have barely any assets, you are considered judgement proof. This means you’re not worth the time to be sued, because you have nothing to take and cannot be garnished. Moving is hard, though, so that’s a personal decision. Also, from what I understand, if you do move to these states, you can switch your statute of limitations over to their states which may be less time until you cannot be sued anymore. If you do lose and just want to stop here, you could get your bank levied and you could be slapped with up to a 25% wage garnishment until paid in full Clarification: a lot of people do not ever get garnished, and bank levies are rare (they are non-existent on federal loans). Do not let this freak you out!. I repeat this is super rare and not likely to happen. Anyways, you have options at this point. If it does happen, try another tactic like leave the country or cat and mouse below. Default Private Default Federal: [medium risk] Some of the wilder people have attempted to default on both federal and private loans in order to do a cash settlement. The same strategy above in Default Private IBR Federal applies, but realize that the US government could just step in and do an administrative garnish on you eventually. If you were living some sort of cash existence, you could potentially avoid them and then write them a money order and settle for 30% or something. This way, you avoid the tax bomb and would probably pay a lot less interest overall. If you do this and it works, I would love to hear about it. Cat and Mouse: [medium risk] So, you want to avoid getting sued or you lost a judgement? You don’t have to sit back and take it. u/nowaysalliemae has successfully avoided being sued by essentially going on the run. You see, to be sued successfully, they need to know where you work. If you get sued, move to another state, and switch jobs, they have to do the entire process over again! This means find you, verify the debt, sue you, etc. You can essentially do this until your statute of limitations runs out. And then, you dispute the debt on your credit score. They take it off at that point, and you just saved a lot of money. I decided to put this as medium risk, because moving around a lot would require some luck. Especially since you would need to work wherever you go, there are a lot of moving parts here. I think it is totally doable, and if you are an adventurous personality type, it could be a lot of fun. This only works for the private student loan side, because the US government has a lot more power. You would still IBR your federal loans on this tactic. For more information, go through nowaysalliemae's post history. Leave the Country: [medium risk] What if you want to avoid all of this altogether? Do you want a reset button on your life? You can just leave the country and start over. Seriously. Your credit score does not follow you across countries. The federal government cannot garnish your paycheck if you work internationally. You are not a criminal doing this. Furthermore, there is something called the Foreign Earned Income Tax Exclusion. Since you will still IBR your federal loans on this plan, as long as you make less than$100,000 in another country, your US income is zero. This means you just got a free education while you make money in another country. Once you pay zero for 25 years, you will have to defuse your student tax bomb. Tactic Below. Private companies do not stand a chance here. There are countries in the commonwealth such as Australia and Canada that are more willing to take you in if you meet certain requirements. You could teach English at a bunch of places. You could apply for residency at these places or be a perpetual tourist. A perpetual tourist is someone who essentially moves to a new country, goes to a neighboring country for a weekend, and then goes back to that new country they are trying to start a new life in*. This in no means you have to go back to the U.S. Ever. For example, you want to live in Panama forever, every 90 days, you take a weekend trip to Nicaragua. You come back to Panama after the weekend is over and get another 90 day pass. Rinse and repeat. This gives you another 90 days in your country of choice. If you make money on the internet, this strategy would work pretty well. You can just be a perpetual tourist or marry someone in another country and start a new life. This will not be a good fit for everyone, but there’s something exciting about this. If you are young, single, and restless, this could be the adventure of a lifetime. Here's more info on being a perpetual traveler and the FEIE: https://www.escapeartist.com/blog/perpetual-traveler-us-tax-code/
Suspend Payment Without More Debt: [low risk] So recently, it has been brought to my attention that there is a community college, Luna Community College (in Las Vegas, NM), that has tuition so low you could go half time all year for about 684 dollars. They have a small amount of associate's degrees. If you just want to stop paying without taking any more loans, this would be the way to do it. You could do this for many years. Luna Community College's tuition matrix: https://luna.edu/tuition_matrix
Convert Federal Loans to Private: [medium risk] So, what if you wanted to go the opposite way? Maybe you want to convert all of your federal loans to private ones, default, and then leave the country? Hey, maybe there are reasons you want to hurry up the settlement process. You could essentially do the same strategy as above, but instead just borrow from Sallie Mae, Wells Fargo, etc until all of your federal loans are paid off. Then, either cat and mouse or leave the country. I don’t think a lot of people would find a use for this, but hey who knows?
Final Thoughts: Defaulting on student loans is not immoral or a sin. It is a business decision. Everyone else gets bailouts, why should student borrowers be any different? You’re going to have to ignore the people who tell you why they think you should be a good little slave and pay your loans. Those people are not your friends. Those people are not on your side. Some of the best advice I ever received in life was you have to do what’s best for you. Also, if you have anything you would like to add to this or would like to challenge, please let me know. I want this to be as accurate as possible. I will be looking at this perpetually to make sure there are no errors. Take care. Good luck. You can do this.

# The Art of a Binary Options Scam

Binary options, fraudulent “trading products” that are designed to part prospective investors from their money are very different from real options. In essence, they are simply a bet that the price of a particular asset will rise in a given time frame. If you win the gamble, the company is supposed to pay a fixed payout, within the 70%-95% range. If you lose, however, you not only lose the “payout” but the initial investment as well.
If this was merely the case this would fall under the category of gambling, something that millions upon millions of individuals do recreationally. However, that is primarily not the case. With almost all binary options brokers you are “trading” against the broker and not the market. The broker wants you to lose, or else the company would not make a profit. Even if the broker pays out your winnings he can easily govern your profit with payout conditions. This means that even if you have a winning formula, the company will just decrease the payout, ensuring you ultimately lose in the long term.

## There is more to the scam

That, unfortunately, is not where it ends. Numerous “brokers” are notorious for spreading fictitious stories about their clientele making gigantic profits with trading robots. Almost all of them manipulate their price curves to prevent you from winning. What’s worse is even if you do win, many of them refuse to pay out, and ultimately drop off the face of the earth (with your money).
Now clients are left in with a major dilemma. To whom do they turn? To the police? To regulators? The answer to these questions is that it depends. Most of these binary options brokers are not regulated and are located offshore, allowing them to do what they want. Often in their terms and conditions, they concoct various rules that ensure they keep your money once they have it. When it comes to regulators such as ASIC or the FCA they are relatively useless as they cannot shut down the actual binary options websites and to make it even worse search engines such as Google allow these websites to appear in their search content.

## Shouldn’t the banks put a stop to this?

Yes, they should. However, the banks, which should be the number one line of defense against these scams either do not know the extent of the problem or are turning a blind eye to their nefarious activities. Additionally, in order to process credit card, debit card payments most of the binary options brokers have registered a small company in an E.U. country.

## Recovery scams

Unfortunately, fraud encourages more fraud. Various individuals targeted U.S. citizens who were swindled by the now-defunct brokerage, Banc de Binary, and a few other binary options companies that were being sued by the SEC or the CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission). They impersonated SEC officials as part of an advanced-fee fraud scheme in which they deceived victims into forwarding them money. Approximately 95 individuals were targeted by this despicable scheme and 25 of them sent 235 thousand dollars in total to these swindlers.
What to Do if You Have Been Scammed
If you have fallen victim to a cryptocurrency scam, send a complaint to at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), and we will do our very best to get into contact with you as soon as we can to initiate your funds recovery process.

##### What are we measuring when we roll dice?

I've recently been spending time working on a dice system from the ground up, which has lead to questioning a lot of standard practices in RPG design. The question of what dice rolls actually tell us has been one of the more interesting ones.
I feel it's safe to call dice rolls a function with inputs and outputs. In the vast majority of cases, the inputs are task difficulty/circumstance, character skill/ability and luck. The output usually being a binary success/failure.
To take an example everyone is familiar with, D&D5e has circumstance represented by advantage, skill by the attribute+proficiency modifier, luck by the D20 and task difficulty by the DC. The outcome being either success or failure. In essence, the question being posed seems to be "Given X skill and Y task, how lucky does a character have to get to succeed?"
To answer the titular question, we seem to be measuring whether a character gets lucky enough to succeed at a task given their skill level. In D&D 5e the focus of the question is on luck, with it's modifier usually being quite low compared to the variance introduced by a D20. In many D100 systems like WH40k and CoC the focus is on skill instead, given that the skill "bonus" ranges from 0 to 100. Regardless, they ultimately ask and answer the same question.
The first question is, is this reasonable? The answer is a pretty strong yes, it has been proven to work time and again. The idea that skill+luck=success is perfectly reasonable. Skill is used to differentiate characters and make them feel real, with strengths and weaknesses. Luck/dice are used to inject chance and unpredictability, as well as reduce player responsibility for failure.
The second, much more interesting, question: is it the only/best way? Practical applications aside, it is great at focusing on the material aspect of a story. Can the heroes complete the task? Are they good enough to do the thing? For games that focus on these aspects the skill+luck formula works perfectly. Its lack of focus on character motivation and approach seems to indicate that for internally focused games it might not be the best option.
There's not many systems which break this formula in a significant way that I know of.Blades in the Dark puts in work on the output side, by splitting things up into effect (how well your task succeeds) and position (how bad the consequences are likely to be), but ultimately asks the same question.
Dogs in the Vineyard allows a character to escalate a conflict, trying again but with a harsher method. While I personally enjoy the idea, the dice resolution of who wins is still decided based on skill.
Legend of the Five Rings uses elements to represent character personality traits, which are then used much as an attribute would be. This modifies the inputs and thus the question, asking if a character is the type of person who finds the task easy. Being intimidating is not just about understanding people, but also about being capable of aggression.
In my own endeavours I've opted for measuring effort (how much a character wants to succeed) and outputting consequence (how much it costs them). This means a task succeeds solely based on how much a player is willing to risk to achieve their goal, with the consequences being greater or lesser depending on their skill and luck.
I'm curious if others are aware of or working on resolution mechanics which break from measuring exclusively skill and luck, if so, how and why?

##### Are (pro) games decided early on? A statistical analysis of G2's Summer Split games using multiple linear regression

TLDR: You can be pretty certain of the outcome based on certain stats at the 10 minute mark, not certain at the 5 minute mark.
I was curious how early you could predict the outcome of a game of SR because it all too often feels like the game is decided super early and it's just a desperate struggle to try and overcome the early snowball effect. So I looked at G2's 15 games this summer split to see if I could come up with an equation to predict win or loss at a relatively early point in the game. Why G2? Because Caps is a sexy beast who doesn't actually statistically matter
I collected the following stats for each game, with the binary options being represented with a 1 or 0 (ex. Win = 1, Loss = 0).
• Win or Loss
• First blood, dragon, and herald and time of each (in raw seconds)
• CS of each lane at 5 minutes and at 10 minutes
• Total Gold at 5 and 10 minutes (in thousands, ex 7300 => 7.3)
• Gold difference at 5 and 10 minutes (in thousands)
This was gathered at the 5:00 mark and 10:00 mark, with a few exceptions if it wasn't on the screen of the VOD due to replays or other graphical info.
The goal was to create an equation that would take in the binary operators, the cs numbers, and the gold, and then output either a 0 or 1 for a loss or win (respectively). This calls for using regression analysis, either polynomial or multi-linear. In this case, linear is a perfectly good option. I trialed many different combinations of the variables to try and see what had an influence and what didn't, and came up with a pretty good formula.
What is a good predictor of a win at 10 minutes:
• Who gets first dragon (better for you to get it)
• Who gets first blood (better for you to get it)
• When first blood is (later is better)
• Who gets Herald (better for you to get it)
• Top, Jungle, Bottom, and Support CS (Higher is better for Jgl and Bot, Lower is better for Top and Sup)
• Gold and Gold Difference
• Kills
What is not a good predictor of a win:
• Mid CS (sorry Caps)
• Herald and Dragon kill time
• Deaths
• Anything at 5 minutes
What's the equation? It's messy like all regression equations.
Win/Loss = 12.0594 - .0276(TCS) + .0571(JCS) + .0506(BCS) -.0869(SCS) +.9861(Gold Difference) - 1.0680(Team Gold) + .5643(Kills) +.0004(First Blood Time) - .2979(if you got first blood) -.6266(if you got first dragon) + .4639(if you got herald)
How accurate is this? Extremely. The unadjusted r-square value is .9967, which shows that essentially every data point is predictable by this line (1 is perfect correlation). However, because we have so many variables, we want to look at the adjusted r-square value. This accounts for how many variables we have so we avoid the issue of just throwing more and more in there until we get a line that works. The adjusted r-square is .9845, which is also incredibly high. Removing any of the variables I used causes this to drop dramatically (to .4 or .5), showing that each variable is needed to properly estimate the win or loss.
This very low r value means that our prediction intervals are quite small. Because these are estimates, our prediction interval is the range of win/loss values that we expect to see based on the numbers we put in. We can go up to 99% confidence and still comfortably guess who is going to win. Will this be wrong sometimes still? Yep! That's what makes it exciting; sometimes players just pop off and ruin the numbers.
Butbutbut does this mean it's bad to get first blood or dragon? For the average player it's probably better to get them first, but this is just for G2 and they are known for playing from behind. This just shows that they play better when it's from behind. 8 games this split for them the team that got first blood won, while the other 7 the first blood team lost. 10 games for first dragon winning. When you have a bunch of variables like this trying to hit a target number, the coefficients don't always make the most sense. But most importantly, correlation does not equal causation
Is there a shorter equation? Sure, you can still get a pretty good estimate using first blood time, TCS, BCS, Gold dif, and kills (all at 10 minutes). This gives an adjusted r-square of .8048, which is still pretty good. It's a little iffy about a few games though with the intervals of estimated values being a little too wide for my liking. Notably the G2 vs FNC game in week 3 it estimated .5700, showing a slight edge to G2 (who eventually won). The equation for this one is
Win/Loss = -1.4234 - .0004(FB Time) - .01978(TCS) + .0412(BCS) + .3319(Gold Dif) + .1159(Kills)
What about at five minutes? Similar to above, but even worse. We only have an adjusted r square of .5930, and numerous estimated values hovering around the middle area between 0 and 1. Notably, the equation using the five minute values says that G2 was estimated to beat OG in week 5. But the biggest issue with having such a small r-square means that our prediction intervals almost always encompass 0 and 1. So in this case we are far less than 95% certain about any of our predictions.
Where's mid???? Idk man, including it had little effect on the regression so it was omitted. All that means is that the amount of mid CS doesn't contribute significantly to G2's chances of winning. This shouldn't be much of a surprise considering Caps tends to roam instead of sitting in lane.
TLDR (again): Lots of stuff matters to if G2 will win or not, but it's also pretty easy to predict at 10 minutes

##### efficiency costs of purchase vs awakenings ideal ranks and their use in winning tournaments

https://preview.redd.it/govc8j6lwaw41.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b53ae8c35f697ea53d6d292ec05f434f29578784
blue = gem cost of initial purchase of a hero at that starting rank, vs. red = gem cost of the awakenings needed to get them to R6 (800*each rank) - together being 100% of their total cost. The "box"-looking effect is the proportion that each rank takes up irt its' relative cost - e.g., the blue boxes are always larger b/c they offer less efficiency at 1500/rank instead of the 800/rank for each awakening; and they are different sizes b/c the heroes have different total costs (i.e., so the awakenings take up a smaller or larger relative proportion of it). The black line is then the % of tokens that can be skipped when starting off with a hero at that starting rank, and the green dashed lines represent each successive rank above that, which are always the same regardless of a hero's starting rank: so a R0 hero starts off with none, but then at R1 is 3% of the way through, then at R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 is 9, 18, 29, 53, and 1005 of the way through. Speaking of, I did not make another one for R7 though I could if there is interest - still, this should help get across the main points. And yes, I realize that there are no heroes that start at R3, or R6 (yet!), but it was easier to leave those in than to take them out.
Also an accompanying table of other helpful numbers.

starting rank: R0 R1 R2 R3 (though no hero starts here) R4 R5 R6 (doesn't exist - yet!?)
total gem cost: 4800 5500 6200 6900 7600 8300 9000
remaining tokens to R6: 170 165 155 140 120 80 0
People keep asking questions about the "efficiency" of ranking up heroes for tournament usage, so I thought I would share this graph, in case it helps.
For instance, did you realize that once you buy a hero that comes pre-awakened to R2, you've already spent nearly *half* of their total gem cost to fully awaken them to R6? (4 more awakenings*800 each=3200, vs. their 3000 price-tag) Although you start off only skipping 9% of the total tokens needed to get them there ((5+10)/(5+10+15+20+40+80)). Especially for newer players considering which heroes to buy and rank up to unlock worlds, these heroes offer fantastic utility for the campaign, Endless mode, and higher-difficulty RS situations. And then once bought, they offer the same efficiency as any other hero to finish off to their R6 for use in tournaments. It's a matter of preference to get one or several of them early and enjoy their use in the campaign, or to avoid their high cost and just awaken more inexpensive ones for faster, though more difficult progress.
In contrast, the heroes that come pre-awakened to R5 are more expensive - but their purchase price represents 90% of their total gem costs, and they already have more than half the total tokens that would be needed to unlock their R6. In short, if you have the gems, it's way more efficient to purchase Yan or Narlax and then finish them off to their R6 than it is to start a new hero at R1 (although if you would have to save up the gems first, read this post instead: https://www.reddit.com/RealmDefenseTD/comments/g1mmg5/advice_about_awakening_existing_heroes_vs_buying/). (Also, do not buy Leif, at least not for the sake of tournaments, although he's great for campaign, and the #1 hero for RS, so especially good for getting a new event hero to higher rank.)
As far as it pertains to "ideal" ranks (those below R6 that are worth pausing at, to win during a hero's week), that is something that many newer players want to know about, but don't quite realize that it's not necessarily for them just yet. But for those that are keen to know, read https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Meta#Season_11_Meta.2FAnalysis for the utility of heroes in Tournament settings, and https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Awakening_Tokens#Most_powerful_Ranks for the utility of each awakening, plus https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Heroes_overview for some additional commentary on hero ideal ranks. For instance, Smoulder has 2 of them, for different purposes: R4 for anti-flier stun situational effect, R5 for his own week that adds stun & a reduced cooldown, although really for his own week he's mostly R6-or-bust, but that depends heavily on the league & the lateness of the season.
I should perhaps add that I've never had much luck with ideal ranks. They seem mostly to be useful in Diamond League, and then by Masters already they are no longer useful. That said, you should give each one careful thought, individually for each hero, b/c it can save you a TON of time from getting a hero's R6 when you didn't need it (yet). Perhaps the most (in-)famous example is Yan's R6, which she doesn't need on her own week (I've literally seen Gold- rather than Purple-outlined Yans among the *very* top scores of a league), probably b/c she doesn't have great skills to help turn her blessed stat boost into actual DAMAGE (being mainly a "support" hero, which she is good at), and especially if you don't even have Efrigid or Bolton yet to receive the synergy that her R6 talent would offer, then it is fairly useless. Though these things do tend to change over time - like Narlax's R6 also used to be unnecessary, until this past season (11) when on his own blessed week it became mandatory to pull several strong bosses. Also one of Hogan's ideal ranks used to be R3 iirc (when his R5 decreased rather than increased his attack speed, before it was switched), then last season it became R5 to keep him alive (also against a strong boss), and now this season it looks like his blessed week is strongly pushing even his R6? Oh yes, some heroes can't/shouldn't really be paused at all, like Lancelot who prior to R6 is flat-out replaceable even when blessed, but at R6 gains a STRONG anti-air utility that is absolutely mandatory to win that week (as in, if ANYONE else in your group has it, who isn't terribly unskilled, then you have little chance to get a higher score than them).
Where the concept of "ideal ranks" is most helpful then, is when you already have (most of) the Meta, and are looking to win more reliably each week. Having a hero at an ideal rank may not be required to win in Gold League for instance, but it can be helpful to use that along the way while you work on other things too (like a second hero's ideal rank, or their R6, or even continuing on with the same hero, just holding back on the actual gem cost - btw strong shout-out thanks to lanclos for sharing with me most of what I know about ideal ranks:-). I suppose it may be like identifying potential resting spots while climbing a mountain - once you identify them you can either pause and rest at them, or else of course skip them and keep going, but either way they may be nice to at least plan to pass by during your ascent, just in case you find that you need them.
SPEAKING OF, here are some additional thoughts on tournaments that might help in that regard, though first I'll have to cover some basics:
a) there is an effect I call the "leading edge" whereby the earlier weeks in the season are the hardest. e.g., *this week* in Gold League is literally the hardest week that it will ever be in this season, b/c *this* is the week that it contains the most senior players (like former GMs). Then, next week, Platinum League will be created, and will be populated by the top 3 players from each group that managed to get promoted - which lets face it tends to be the most senior players, with the deepest hero investments and also the most experience & skill; and thus *that week* will be the hardest that Platinum will ever see, and so on in Diamond, and Masters, and...actually Legendary is special, b/c once a player reaches GM, they remain there. But the other leagues get easier the further the season goes, b/c of all the more senior players getting promoted each week. So therefore the last week of each season (prior to Legendary) is literally the easiest to get promoted in.
There are some important modifiers to this, b/c it may be easy or hard in general but not for you b/c of the heroes you have, and also an effect where campers used to try to not get promoted so quickly, but then towards the end of the season get nervous and want to move upwards, but anyway, this is generally true. So when I say "in lower leagues, later in the season", what I mean is "further away from the leading edge". IN OTHER WORDS, the difficulty of Gold League on week #1 is nowhere NEAR the same difficulty as Gold League on week #15. On the other hand, Platinum League on week #2 is quite similar actually to the difficulty of Legendary League, anytime, b/c that is the league where at that time all the veterans are (with anything above Platinum not yet having been created). See what I mean? But b/c of this effect, any talk about "Gold League" or "Platinum League" must be merely an average of how difficult it is to win, which basically means mid-way away from the leading edge, although be aware of these variations where earlier means *much*-harder-than-average, and later means much easier.
b) Gold League further is special in its' being so small, and in having players that haven't finished the campaign yet, which (vastly) increases the number of total players, and has the effect of "diluting" / spreading the veteran players out between/among the various groups. Therefore, even on week #1, its' difficulty is nowhere near as hard as Legendary League, b/c of being mitigated by this effect. Platinum on week #2 also isn't *quite* as hard as Legendary for similar reasons (the group size being 30 instead of 50; and effects like even former GMs lacking Hogan and not being promoted while others who have Hogan's R6 can do even better), but...Gold is truly special in being the easiest league to win in (aside from the non-repeatable Bronze and Silver of course). Though again, for people having trouble getting promoted from Gold League, take heart: as the season progresses it WILL get easier!:-)
c) in Gold League, with Koi & Raida you can pretty much win by accident even w/o meteors (though this particular week requires Narlax too, and might even need meteors - though I have never used any to get out of Gold myself). This is b/c those heroes provide so much higher utility, compared to so MANY players that lack them, that you definitely have a good chance. And that chance keeps repeating every week, as it gets easier and easier later and later into the season, so if you don't get promoted one week, keep trying the next. The advice for players lacking Koi & Raida is the same: keep trying, and eventually you'll get into a group that lacks Koi, or perhaps someone who doesn't know how to use them yet, and you CAN win! And if you truly want to prioritize this aspect of the game, before you finish the campaign, get a hero to an ideal rank or even R6, and on their blessed week, if it's late enough, you'll have a VERY good shot (though perhaps also needing good generic heroes like Narlax and Leif, unless you get VERY lucky with your group placement, or outright R6 a few heroes for this purpose).
d) in Platinum, it gets a bit harder. Though, if you have the Meta, not by that much. For those who have Raida & Koi, also pick up Yan, necro-Connie, Narlax, and Smoulder's R4 and you'll do fine in Platinum, even without the blessed hero (though of course, earlier in the season you may need them, while later you can get by without them, having strong generic+situational replacements).
e) in Diamond, it gets harder still, where you start to need the blessed hero more often. Though not every week, and not necessarily at an "ideal"/pausing rank. Two seasons ago (while I was still R6ing Koi) I got promoted by having Obsidian, not at his ideal rank of R4 but just about level 20 and rank R2 - & even then he was replaceable with Efri's R6 (which I did not have) - though that was week #13 out of 15, so very late. Many other similar stories told by veteran players abound: Mabyn's R2, Helios's R4, and if you have Yan's R6, then also Efri's R4 & Bolton's R3, etc.
f) in Masters, it is pretty much R6-or-bust, and so you are already past the stage where ideal ranks can help you for the most part (I mean Yan's R5 would probably still work, and Helios's R4 b/c towers don't add much to tournament situations, but...not much else). *If* you use the blessed hero at all, you probably need them all the way to R6. Though there are a few situations where a hero is outright replaceable - chiefly Sethos, Leif, and Masamune (possibly needing to be quite late in the season for that one), all of whom lack anti-air capabilities (though Masamune's R7 is going to change that!).
g) that said, Masters League is still nowhere near as difficult as Legendary. Scores that would get you promoted out of Masters won't even get you a reward in Legendary (although THIS season looks to be changing that - thus encouraging promotion and concurrently discouraging camping in lower leagues - definitely a plus for both veteran and more junior players alike!). Also, for the most part you can get by without the whole entire cast of "situational" heroes that are needed in Legendary, to win a GM. What I mean is: when veteran players have ALL the heroes to choose from, and they are all at R6, they can find the absolute BEST one for any given week - which could be Efri, Mabyn, Azura, Caldera, Connie, Helios, Shamiko, Narlax, Smoulder, etc., and if you want to get a GM, you need to have whatever it is that week that is among the BEST. While in Masters, you most often don't - so actually, R6-or-bust isn't that hard to do, at least compared to Legendary where you need both the blessed hero that week AND one of a large(-ish?) cast of situational heroes, and of course their R6 as well.
h) an argument against ideal ranks is that it may spread out your hero investments too thin to let you win many weeks. On the other hand, an argument for it is that even having a hero's R6 doesn't guarantee a win (e.g., at first I was absolutely terrible at using Narlax - and still I have yet to ever win a week where he is blessed). Also aiming for ideal ranks lets you maximize your elixir income (https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Realm_Siege_Strategies). Though an R6 hero also offers the option to use that hero even when not blessed (and yet this works better for some heroes and not so well for others - e.g., Mabyn can perhaps win at R2 in Diamond, but as a situational hero needs her 5th meteor talent gained at R6 to truly be effective; while Bolton + Obsidian are mostly only used when blessed, and never outside of that - although this week may again be revealing that the devs may change that in the future!). Therefore there are many benefits to either using, or not using, ideal ranks.
Ultimately whether you want to pause at an ideal rank, or keep going all the way to R6 for every hero that you own, seems to be a matter of personal preference: how EXTREME of a personality are you? Do you want to work on increasing your MAXIMUM power, to possibly win a GM title sooner - but also maybe fail to even reach Legendary League at all, as a more junior player, and also have little chance at all on weeks that you lack the blessed hero (at least in Diamond League, or others earlier in the season, closer to the seasonal reset - i.e., take a risk, and maybe be #1 on the weeks you've prepared heavily for, but then score very low on (many of) those you've invested literally nothing into? Or do you prefer to aim for a more AVERAGE level of power, which may leave you unable to be promoted on a given week (maybe several of them), but yet still maybe get some rewards, not being the best but neither being the worst, and yet still get practice either way, and maybe win sooner with less of a hero investment needed into a particular week, leaving you free to focus your efforts elsewhere?
Like most things in life, the ideal path is probably somewhere between the most extreme of R6ing one hero before moving on to the next, vs. having all heroes at ideal ranks but none at R6. Though there are people who have pursued each of those strategies! (and I can tell you some of their names if you want:-) Ultimately you need 4 wins to get to Legendary League, and then at least 1 more if you want a GM title that season. So pick a few heroes to get to R6, another few to get to ideal ranks, and with that collection you'll do well. Another hint: do you want your strongest hero investments to be earlier in the season, in your lowest league, or later, in the highest? Watch the https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Blessed_Heroes_-_Tournament page to see how early a hero is blessed in the last few seasons, and pick one that will likely be blessed later rather than earlier, and then aim to buy that hero and work on increasing their power. e.g., Yan and Narlax are both in the Meta, and blessed mid-to-late-season.
Also there are a TON of other helpful tips - about towers, heroes and synergies and combo moves, and many other tournament topics on https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Tournament_Basic_Info and https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Tournament_Detailed_Strategy. So now all that's left is for me to wish you good luck!:-)

Edit: while I thought about adding these couple of thoughts before, they didn't specifically touch on ideal ranks, so I left them out. But so many are asking so I'll put them in after all...
i) there are 3 hero roles to fulfill each week: generic, situational, and blessed. If you want to think about it harder it's "really" 2 situational and 1 blessed, but since right now one of those slots is nearly ALWAYS Koi, the former formula is at least a nice way to think about/remember it.
generic: especially if you lack blessed heroes and/or Koi, this is about all you've got - so use it! When you get to W3, Helios or Sethos can work, to help get you promoted from Gold - though you shouldn't get them just for this purpose (it is terribly inefficient to buy new heroes all the time when you can awaken earlier ones for nearly half the cost, though that takes TIME so this is a strategy mainly for P2W players). In W4, Yan and especially Narlax can get you promoted in Platinum (though again, don't buy JUST for this short-term purpose), and in W5, Leif/Caldera can get you promoted even as high as Diamond (later in the season). I doubt that any of these can get you promoted in Masters, and if anyone ever actuall DID that, they should count their lucky stars, but it's not something that you should "expect" to happen. Once you get Raida and Koi though, you'll never use these other heroes for their "generic" utility again.
situational: usually there is some hero / class of heroes that will work best for a given week. Otherwise, for example, if the only powerful heroes you have are Koi & Leif, then every week you'll always bring them, for their *generic* power. But Leif hardly does anything against fliers - merely blessing towers which, while that work GREAT in RS on blessed tower spots, is virtually useless in tournament situations. Instead, if you brought Smoulder, especially with his R4 anti-flier slow-down talent, then you have a *much* better defense & offense against fliers, even though Smoulder seems to offer FAR less "generic" power than Leif - but even thoug it is "less", it is "more" appropriate to the *situation* - see? So for a level lacking fliers entirely, Leif would be better, although for a sitaution where fliers are the ones ending your tournament play, Smoulder can be a huge boon.
Also, sometimes situational utility can (nearly or even completely) win out over generic or blessed heroes! An example is where on Sethos or Leif's blessed week, a team of strong anti-flier utility can relatively easily get scores as good as or better than a team including the blessed hero at R6 (though skill also plays a role of course). Lancelot prior to his R5 is also replaceable, and Masamune even at his R6 is *somewhat* so (if it's not a binary yes/no, but rather a continuum, where his R6 provides *one* route to win, but a strong anti-air team is *another* way, which even though offers less power, and so can't win a GM, is offered at much greater efficiency and may let you get high rewards or even promoted with from Masters League).
-) anti-fliers: Raida, Smoulder, Connie are enough to get you started, then later you'll want to add Helios & Azura. Each offers something different - like Smoulder slows them down, Raida stuns them, Connie does both, Azura can charm up to 4 (good for when there are more rare but tanky ones like W3 crows), and others can be good too like Efrigid also slows them, Narlax pulls them back, etc. The Narlax+Raida pull+charge/stun combo is ESPECIALLY powerful (read more at https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Tournament_Detailed_Strategy#Narlax_.2B_CC_combo). Note that while Fee is tremendous for fliers in campaign, she can't really keep up in this mode, except when she's blessed.
-) bosses: Koi & even Raida (& Leif if you got him for other reasons) can tank fairly well at first. Connie's bunny mamma does even better, and her little bunnies help slow it down. Narlax at his R6 can pull them back. Later, you'll want Azura who can help charm an enemy to use as a tank against the boss, and then there is Caldera who is immune to all physical damage, but extremely vulnerable to magic. Although the latter two are rarely blessed themselves, and often aren't as worth bringing as the blessed hero. If you are just getting started, Fee (at any rank) may actually work surprisingly well, as her wolves can delay a boss somewhat as it pauses to kill them.
-) delay: Connie, Raida to stun, Narlax to pull back, Efrigid to slow/freeze; or for just a few enemies that get past a checkpoint, Yan to teleport, or Mabyn for fear.
-) worlds: Mabyn works REALLY well for W3, to send enemies back whereupon the archer-bots can regain control of the situation after being broken through. Azura works really well for W4 since she is immune to the slow effect, can heal to help counteract all the ranged damage being thrown at you, and can charm strong enemies - like an armored tank to use against a boss, or a strong flier to use against other strong or weak ones, etc. Caldera isn't good in W3 (poison) or W4 (magic), but is very effective in W1,2,&5.
-) synergies: these can be stronger than anything else (yes even than Koi - in fact this is the ONLY reason why you might not want to use Koi if you have him) - basically you either have the synergy partners or you lose that week (except *maybe* in Gold?). Efri & Bolton need both Yan & Koi's R6, Bolton & Obsidian need each other, Fee needs at least 1-2 of her synergy partners, and Smoulder needs his R6 + Narlax to in. Read the wiki for more comprehensive details. Note that every one of Leif's synergies is absolutely useless and *never* worth bringing him along, unless you are a more junior player and lack anything better to do (hint: it might help once or twice, but it's REALLY not worth getting those 80 tokens and spending 800 gems to get his R6 - that should be one of it not literally THE last thing you do in the game; unless the devs change that soon? I personally would LOVE to see that!:-).
-) special mention 1: Yan hastes Koi, and is thus used more often than any other hero, after Koi himself. She can do this at her R5 though - no need to get her R6 until you are ready to take advantage of her 2 synergies.
-) special mention 2: Raida's extremely high generic utility (2nd only to Koi), AND his high situational utility (for fliers, stunning & damaging bosses, large CC, etc.) makes him the top #1 all-around utility / situational hero...though only providing a very "average" level whenever you lack some other hero who can provide a higher MAXIMUM power. When you have literally every other hero in the game, and to their R6, then you may never use Raida again (though even that's not quite true - players often use him in their first try at a level, to be ready for anything, even though he is always replaced with someone better to get the final maximum score), but until you invest that deeply (which will take YEARS of your life), Raida can provide a great deal of help. *Especially* on the days where you lack the blessed hero, though that is more of a generic functionality, and yet also when you lack the top situational hero for that week (Azura?). Use him as a stepping-stone.
blessed heroes: there is no getting around the fact that you need the blessed heroes to have the best chance to win on a given week. Especially by Masters League, though of course they still help a LOT to win more often in Gold, Platinum, and Diamond. Until then, strong generic+situational utility can help fill in - some heroes are more replaceable than others as mentioned above - but after you get the Meta (Koi, Raida, Connie, Yan, Narlax), then you need to decide whether to prioritize more situational heroes, or more blessed heroes. Both ways work, and you probably want to split your efforts b/t the two. Often heroes work for both: e.g. Narlax is blessed every season, usually fairly late, and then last season (11) was also used another 4 times. In contrast, heroes like Fee, Lancelot, and Masamune are only ever used once, on their blessed week. But still, you only need 4 wins to get to Legendary, and especially if you already had these heroes at a high rank to help you unlock worlds in campaign, they can be a GREAT way to win, certainly much easier than trying to win with purely generic+situational utility that doesn't match what is needed on a given hero's blessed week. One tip: pick a hero that you like to work with, and get them to R6 - you'll likely do better with them than you would with some other hero that you don't enjoy as much.
j) R7 heroes and future predictions: many people, myself included, think that R7 will mostly be necessary for winning GMs. Thus, R6 becomes another ideal/pausing rank, though this one useful to win Masters League with. Many people want to know whether they "should" get an additional hero to R6, or focus that time instead to continue on to R7, though again this is up to your personal preference - do you want to win more often, though possibly not at the #1 spot and maybe not get promoted but do get rewards, so aiming for a higher "average" utility, or do you want to take a risk for a chance to get a GM, and aim for "maximum" utility instead (at the cost of being farther behind in terms of having fewer heroes to use whenever they are blessed)? It's a GAME, so go for what YOU want!:-)
TLDR: use ideal/pausing ranks for heroes blessed earlier in the season, and instead put your highest investments into heroes blessed later, where you'll need their power the most.

# MAME 0.219

MAME 0.219 arrives today, just in time for the end of February! This month we’ve got another piece of Nintendo Game & Watch history – Pinball – as well as a quite a few TV games, including Dream Life Superstar, Designer’s World, Jenna Jameson’s Strip Poker, and Champiyon Pinball. The previously-added Care Bears and Piglet’s Special Day TV games are now working, as well as the big-endian version of the MIPS Magnum R4000. As always, the TV games vary enormously in quality, from enjoyable titles, to low-effort games based on licensed intellectual properties, to horrible bootlegs using blatantly copied assets. If music/rhythm misery is your thing, there’s even a particularly bad dance mat game in there.
On the arcade side, there are fixes for a minor but long-standing graphical issue in Capcom’s genre-defining 1942, and also a fairly significant graphical regression in Seibu Kaihatsu’s Raiden Fighters. Speaking of Seibu Kaihatsu, our very own Angelo Salese significantly improved the experience in Good E-Jan, and speaking of graphics fixes, cam900 fixed some corner cases in Data East’s innovative, but little-known, shoot-’em-up Boogie Wings. Software list additions include the Commodore 64 INPUT 64 collection (courtesy of FakeShemp) and the Spanish ZX Spectrum Load’N’Run collection (added by ICEknight). New preliminary CPU cores and disassemblers include IBM ROMP, the NEC 78K family, Samsung KS0164 and SSD Corp’s Xavix 2.
As always, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

## MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

• 06790: [Graphics] (surpratk.cpp) suratk: Missing star field rotation effect in final level. (MetalliC)
• 07079: [Gameplay] (suna8.cpp) sparkman, sparkmana: Player 2 button inputs are not read correctly. (dink)
• 07428: [Media Support] (vsmileb.cpp) vsmileb: Unable to load media. (Ivan Vangelista)
• 07557: [DIP/Input] (karnov.cpp) wndrplnt: Coin inputs no longer work. (MetalliC)
• 07562: [Graphics] (seibuspi.cpp) rdft: Line scroll effects have regressed. (MetalliC)

## New working machines

• Advance Bright Ltd / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. Decathlon [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• Bandai / SSD Company LTD Mahou Taiketsu Magiranger - Magimat de Dance & Battle (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood, ShouTime]
• Conny / VideoJet Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - Pocket Dream Console (France) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Consumenta Computer / Loproc Conchess (standard) [hap, Berger]
• Game & Watch: Pinball [algestam, Ryan Holtz]
• Hasbro / Tiger Electronics Dream Life Superstar (Version 0.3, Mar 16 2007) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Hasbro / Tiger Electronics Mission: Paintball Powered Up [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Hasbro / Tiger Electronics Star Wars - The Clone Wars [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Hasbro Designer's World (Version 1.0, Dec 20 2005) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto 1X [Berger, blitzchess.fr]
• HP 86B [F.Ulivi]
• Merry Circus (Version 1.0.2) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• MGT 20-in-1 TV-Spielekonsole (Germany) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Mortal Kombat (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle]
• Performance Designed Products / Disney / Jungle Soft Disney Game It! Classic Pals [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Plug & Play Game Controller with 200 Games (Supreme 200) [TeamEurope]
• Retro Dance Mat (110 song Super StepMania + 9-in-1 games) (PAL) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Senario / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. My Sports Challenge (5-in-1 version) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Senario / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. My Sports Challenge (6-in-1 version, QVC license) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Senario / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. My Sports Challenge Plus / Wireless Sports Plus [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Senario Guitar Super Star (Fender Stratocaster style) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Shiggles Inc. Club Jenna Presents: Jenna Jameson's Strip Poker [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Sports Trivia Professional Edition (Senario, Plug and Play) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• TaiKee Interactive TV Games 49-in-1 (PAL) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Tech2Go / WayForward Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Mutant and Monster Mayhem [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Tomy / SSD Company LTD Champiyon Pinball (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, ShouTime, David Haywood]

## New working clones

• Albert Computers, Inc. Albert [rfka01]
• ASEM S.p.A. AM100 [rfka01]
• Ataque Androide - Moon Cresta (FAR S.A. Spanish bootleg) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Battle Balls (Portugal) [Apocalypse]
• Blood Bros. (Korea) [Jorge Silva]
• Dharma Doujou (Germany) [Darksoft]
• Double Wings (Asia) [Asayuki, pacman70]
• The End (SegaSA / Sonic) [jordigahan, ClawGrip]
• El Estivador (Spanish bootleg of Port Man on Galaxian hardware) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Final Star Force (World?) [Jorge Silva]
• Galaktron (Petaco S.A.) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Galaxian (Spanish bootleg) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• GTAC Do-Do [R. Belmont, rfka01]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Academy (German, 04-10-88) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Academy (German, 06-03-89) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Berlin 68000 (v0.02) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Blitz- und Problemloesungs-Modul (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Genius 68030 (v4.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto II (set 2) [Berger]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 2, v4.00 2 EPROMs) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 3, v3.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 4) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 5) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM IV (v6.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM IV (v7.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM V (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Mega IV (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Milano (v1.01) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Modena (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Modena (set 3) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Monte Carlo (ver. MC2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Polgar 10 MHz (v10.1) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Portorose 32 Bit (v1.01) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Rebell 5,0 (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Super Mondial (ver. AB) [hap]
• The Lord of King (bootleg) [hammy, caius]
• Master Boy (1987, Z80 hardware, Ichi-Funtel) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Mr. Do! (Fabremar bootleg) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.60, DK PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.61, DK PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.61a, C1 PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.61a, DK PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Olivmandingo (Spanish bootleg of Mandinga on Galaxian hardware) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• P-47 Aces (ver 1.1) [Derick2K, rtw, trap15]
• Pang (bootleg, set 7) [jordigahan, Pikolo, ClawGrip]
• Puzzle & Action: Tant-R (Japan) (bootleg set 4) [jordigahan]
• Puzzli (revision A) [SpinalFeyd]
• Raiden II (easier, US, prototype? 11-16) [neSneSgB]
• Rampart (Joystick, smaller ROMs) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Ribbit! (Japan) [Apocalypse]
• Saitek / Tasc Kasparov RISC 2500 (v1.03) [hap]
• Seicross (set 2) [Zab, The Dumping Union]
• Sirio II (Calfesa S.L. Spanish Moon Cresta bootleg, set 2) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Space Pilot (set 2) [chaneman]
• Street Fighter II: The World Warrior (USA 920312) [Lions3]
• SWTPC swtpc S/09 OS9 [68bit]
• Tasc ChessSystem R30 (Gideon 2.1, prototype) [hap]
• Tasc ChessSystem R30 (The King 2.20) [hap]
• Tasc ChessSystem R30 (The King 2.23, unreleased) [hap]
• Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (US 4 Players, version N) [coolmod, The Dumping Union]
• Three Ds - Three Dealers Casino House (set 2) [Patrik Styrnell]
• Time Killers (v1.00) [Brian Troha, The Dumping Union]
• Triumph-Adler Alphatronic P50 [rfka01, Carl]
• Viper Phase 1 (New Version, Portugal) [Jorge Silva]

## Machines promoted to working

• Care Bears TV Games (JAKKS Pacific TV Game, Game-Key Ready) [Ryan Holtz]
• Gimix 6809 System [68bit]
• MIPS Magnum R4000 (be) [Patrick Mackinlay]
• Simba / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. TV Sports 10-in-1 / Decathlon Athletic Sport Games [David Haywood]
• Winnie the Pooh - Piglet's Special Day (JAKKS Pacific TV Game, Game-Key Ready) [Ryan Holtz, Sean Riddle, David Haywood]

## Clones promoted to working

• Witch Card (ICP-1) [Ivan Vangelista]

## New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

• 3 Cards Poker 96 (V1.6) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Advance Bright Ltd Guitar Fever (2007.07.03 Ver 2.7) [TeamEurope, Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood]
• Advance Bright Ltd. Wikid Joystick [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Alcatel / Telefonica TeleTUP [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Alcatel / Telefonica TRMA VIA [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Ampex 230 plus Terminal (v4.0) [Bitsavers]
• Applied Microelectronics Institute/The Weather Channel WeatherSTAR 4000 [R. Belmont, Techknight]
• Atari Flashback Mini 7800 [Sean Riddle, GameHistory.org]
• AtGames / Sega Reactor MD (PAL) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Bandai Multi Game Player Gamepad [Sean Riddle, GameHistory.org]
• Basic Fun The Oregon Trail [anonymous]
• Big Buck Hunter Safari (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Cadaco Buzztime Home Trivia System [Sean Riddle]
• Casio ROM Pack Software List holder [David Haywood, ClawGrip]
• Cefa Toys Super Quique / Mega Duck (Spain) [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• City Patrolman [unknown]
• CompuData Tulip System I [rfka01, nIGHTFALL crew, Dirk Best]
• Digital Pocket Hand Held System Model: 8630 - 230-in-1 [Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood]
• dreamGEAR My Arcade Retro Arcade Machine - 300 Handheld Video Games (DGUN-2593) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Duck Commander (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Epoch / SSD Company LTD Excite Sports Tennis x Fitness (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, ShouTime]
• Formula 1 [PinMAME]
• Gegege no Kitaro Yokai Yokocho Matsuri De Batoru Ja (GYM1 Ver.A) [Porchy, SpinalFeyd]
• Ice Mania [PinMAME]
• Imaginarium / ItsMagical Karao Kids Songs 2 (Spain) [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• JAKKS Pacific Inc / Code Mystics TV Touch Games: Spider-Man in Villain Round-Up [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• JAKKS Pacific Inc / Code Mystics TV Touch Games: Star Wars Original Trilogy [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• JAKKS Pacific Inc DreamWorks Dragons Hero Portal [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Keroro Gunso Chikyu Shinryaku Shirei Dearimasu! (KRG1 Ver.A) [Porchy, SpinalFeyd]
• Konami Endeavour BIOS [R. Belmont]
• Lexibook Compact Cyber Arcade - Disney Princess [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Lexibook Retro TV Game Console - 300 Games [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• MGT Fitness Konsole (NC1470) [TeamEurope]
• Mini Arcade Machine (Red5) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Orb Retro Arcade Game Controller 153-in-1 [Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood]
• Rapid Fire 5 (Konami Endeavour, NSW) [Heihachi_73]
• Roland D-50 Linear Synthesizer (Ver. 2.xx) [DBWBP, depblue]
• Senario Guitar Star [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Star Wars Clone Trooper (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• STM Electronics Pied Piper Communicator 1 [Adrian Graham]
• Super Roller (v7.0) [hammy]
• Super Shanghai 2001 [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Symbol PDT 3100 (v1.10-00) [ArcadeHacker, ClawGrip]
• Tomy / SSD Company LTD Nihon Isshuu - Boku wa Plarail Untenshi (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood, ShouTime]
• Toy Story - Toys on the Move (JAKKS Pacific TV Motion Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Triumph-Adler alphatronic PC-16 [Carl, rfka01]
• VTech MobiGo [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• VTech MobiGo 2 (Germany) [TeamEurope]
• Waixing Megapad 31-in-1 [Sean Riddle, GameHistory.org]
• The Walking Dead: Battleground (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• The Walking Dead: Zombie Hunter (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle]
• WinFun / KidConnection SmarTV Adventures [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]

## New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

• 3 Cards Poker 96 (V1.0) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Cherry Angel (set 2) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Club Kart: European Session (2003, prototype, set 2) [coolmod, MetalliC]
• Ferrari F355 Challenge (private show version) [coolmod]
• Roland D-50 Linear Synthesizer (Ver. 1.xx) [DBWBP]
• Roland D-550 Linear Synthesizer [DBWBP]
• Sanyo MBC-16LT [rfka01]
• Sirio II (Calfesa S.L. Spanish Moon Cresta bootleg, set 1) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Time Crisis 4 (Japan, TSF1001-NA-A) [Guru]
• Victor V286C [rfka01]

## New working software list additions

• altos8600: Altos Diagnostic Executive [Robbbert]
• apple2_flop_clcracked: Algebra Volume 6 (Version 1.0) (cleanly cracked), Alkemstone (cleanly cracked), Building Perspective (cleanly cracked), The Dragon's Eye (cleanly cracked), Fraktured Faebles (cleanly cracked), Generic Computer Games (cleanly cracked), Gruds in Space (cleanly cracked), Other-Venture #3: The Escape from Traam (cleanly cracked), Pick The Part (cleanly cracked), Ulysses and the Golden Fleece (Version 1.1) (cleanly cracked), World Atlas Action: Geography Facts (cleanly cracked) [4am, Firehawke]
• apple2_flop_orig: 221B Baker Street (Version 1.1), Adventure Programming Kit (Versoin 10.84), Alter Ego (female version), Alter Ego (male version), The Dallas Quest, The Dragon's Eye, Expedition Amazon, Garfield Trivia Game, Generic Computer Games, Legacy of the Ancients, Manhunter: New York (Version 1.0I), MasterType (Version 2.1), Micro Cookbook (Version 3.00), Miner 2049er II, Ming's Challenge, The Serpent's Star (Version 1.0), Spectrum: Programs and Patterns, Summer Games II, Time Zone (Version 1.1), The Tracer Sanction, Transylvania (1985 Version), Treasure Island, Tumble Bugs [4am, Firehawke]
• applix: Boot disk [Robbbert]
• aussiebyte: Boot disk [Robbbert]
• buzztime_cart: Series 1 - Everything Trivia, Series 1 - History Trivia, Series 1 - Sports Trivia, Series 1 - TV Trivia [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• c64_cass:
• The CF Power Pack Tape 6, The CF Power Pack Tape 9, Dan Dare - Pilot of the Future, Excaliba, Postman Pat 2, Saracen [FakeShemp]
• INPUT 64 1/85, INPUT 64 1/86, INPUT 64 1/87, INPUT 64 10/86, INPUT 64 11/85, INPUT 64 11/86, INPUT 64 12/85, INPUT 64 12/86, INPUT 64 2/85, INPUT 64 2/86, INPUT 64 2/87, INPUT 64 3/85, INPUT 64 3/86, INPUT 64 3/87, INPUT 64 4/85, INPUT 64 4/86, INPUT 64 4/87, INPUT 64 5/85, INPUT 64 5/86, INPUT 64 5/87, INPUT 64 6/85, INPUT 64 6/86, INPUT 64 6/87, INPUT 64 7/85, INPUT 64 7/86, INPUT 64 7/87, INPUT 64 8/85, INPUT 64 8/86, INPUT 64 8/87, INPUT 64 9/85, INPUT 64 9/86 [pagetable, FakeShemp]
• c64_flop_orig: INPUT 64 1/87, INPUT 64 1/88, INPUT 64 10/86, INPUT 64 10/87, INPUT 64 10/88, INPUT 64 11/86, INPUT 64 11/87, INPUT 64 11/88, INPUT 64 12/86, INPUT 64 12/87, INPUT 64 12/88, INPUT 64 2/87, INPUT 64 2/88, INPUT 64 3/87, INPUT 64 3/88, INPUT 64 4/87, INPUT 64 4/88, INPUT 64 5/87, INPUT 64 5/88, INPUT 64 6/87, INPUT 64 6/88, INPUT 64 7/87, INPUT 64 7/88, INPUT 64 8/87, INPUT 64 8/88, INPUT 64 9/87, INPUT 64 9/88 [pagetable, FakeShemp]
• fmtowns_cd: Cyber Sculpt V1.0 (HMC-140A), Mahjong Bishoujoden Ripple, Microcosm (HMD-215), Secre Volume I - Naoko Iijima [redump.org, r09]
• gamegear: Sonic The Hedgehog 2 (World, final prototype 19920925) [drx, FakeShemp]
• hp86_rom: Advanced programming 1 ROM, Advanced programming 2 ROM, Assembler ROM, Extended Mass Storage ROM, I/O ROM, Language ROM, Matrix 1 ROM, Matrix 2 ROM, MIKSAM ROM, Printeplotter ROM [F.Ulivi]
• ibm5150:
• Domino 1.0 [FakeShemp]
• ibm5170:
• Cannon Fodder 2, Epic Pinball (shareware version - Mr. Disk release), Epic Pinball: Crash and Burn, Epic Pinball: Cyborgirl, Epic Pinball: Enigma [ArcadeShadow]
• Tågplusguiden - Vinter–Våren 1998 [FakeShemp]
• jakks_gamekey_nm: Pac-Man & Bosconian (01 APR 2005 A SKU G) [Sean Riddle, Ryan Holtz, David Haywood]
• jazz: Windows NT Workstation Version 3.5, Windows NT Workstation Version 3.51, Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0 Service Pack 1 [Patrick Mackinlay]
• lynx: Weltenschlächter [anonymous]
• megadriv: Sonic the Hedgehog 2 (World, final prototype 19921102), Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (World, prototype 19931103) [drx, FakeShemp]
• nes: English Pyramid (Pirate) [Gaming Alexandria]
• odyssey2:
• Death Race (Euro) [anonymous]
• Death Race (USA) [SSJ, TeamEurope]
• sbrain: Boot disk [Robbbert]
• sdk85: Mastermind [AJR]
• spectrum_cass:
• uzebox: Final Blood, Frog Feast, Laser Puzzle, Laser Puzzle II, Melli's RetroLand, Reels of Fortune, Uzebox Tactics, Uzi Wars [uzebox.org]

## Software list items promoted to working

• fmtowns_cd:
• King's Quest V - Absence Makes the Heart Go Yonder, Kyuukyoku Tiger, Mixed-Up Mother Goose, Panzer Division - Kikou Shidan, Taito Chase H.Q. (Demo), The Case of the Cautious Condor [Barry Rodewald, Carl, r09]
• Life & Death [redump.org, Barry Rodewald, Carl, r09]
• pc98: Mahjong Gokuu Tenjiku, Mahjong Taikai [Angelo Salese]

## New NOT_WORKING software list additions

• casio_rompack:
• How to Play your Casio ROM Keyboard (RO-251) [Sean Riddle, avlixa, ClawGrip]
• World Songs (RO-551) [Sean Riddle]
• fmtowns_cd: Doki Doki Vacation - Kirameku Kisetsu no Naka de, Para Para Paradise [redump.org, r09]
• ique: Dòngwù Sēnlín (version 8), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (manual, version 2), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (manual, version 4), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (trailer), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (version 3), iQue Club (version 1), iQue Club (version 2), iQue Club (version 3), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (manual, version 2), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (manual, version 6), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (trailer), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (version 4), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (version 5), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (manual, version 2), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (manual, version 4), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (trailer), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (version 4), Rèntiāntáng Míngxīng Dà Luàn Dǒu (manual, version 1), Rèntiāntáng Míngxīng Dà Luàn Dǒu (version 5), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (manual, version 2), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (manual, version 4), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (trailer, version 1), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (trailer, version 2), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (version 4), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (manual, version 2), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (manual, version 6), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (trailer, version 1), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (trailer, version 2), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (version 4), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (manual, version 2), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (manual, version 4), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (trailer), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (version 1), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (version 4) [FakeShemp]
• leapster: The Disney-Pixar Collection (USA), Letterpillar (v1.0, USA) [TeamEurope]
• mobigo_cart:
• Ben 10 - UltimateAlien - Mine der Gedanken (Germany) (80-250604), Cars 2 (Germany) (80-251904), Chuggington (Germany) (80-251804), Cars Toon - Hooks unglaubliche Geschichten (Germany) (80-251204), Disney Princess (Germany) (80-251104), Dora - Tag des Zwillings (Germany) (80-250804), Für immer Shrek (Germany) (80-250004), Kung Fu Panda 2 (Germany) (80-252004), Micky Maus - Wunderhaus (Germany) (80-250504), Mobigo Kiosk (Germany), Die Pinguine aus Madagascar - Operation Krone (Germany) (80-250304), Rapunzel - Neu Verföhnt (Germany) (80-251704), Team Umizoomi - Die große Umiauto Rettung (Germany) (80-252504), Toy Story 3 (Germany) (80-250104) [TeamEurope]
• Mickey Mouse, Tangled, Toy Story 3 [Sean Riddle]
• n64: Aidyn Chronicles - The First Mage (USA, prototype 20000210), Aidyn Chronicles - The First Mage (USA, prototype 20000509), Cruis'n World (Europe), Die Hard 64 (prototype 20000315, set 1), Die Hard 64 (prototype 20000315, set 2), Die Hard 64 (prototype 20000315, set 3), Dragon Sword (prototype), Duke Nukem - Zero Hour (USA, final prototype), ECW Hardcore Revolution (Germany), Frogger 2 (USA, prototype, "Milestone 4"), GT64 - Championship Edition (prototype 19980525), International Superstar Soccer 2000 (USA, rev 1), Madden NFL 99 (USA, prototype 19980805, "Beta 10 NTSC"), Madden NFL 99 (USA, rev 1), Mario Kart 64 (USA, set 2), Mission: Impossible (Spain, rev 1), Mortal Kombat Trilogy (prototype 19960513), NBA Hangtime (USA, set 2), Robotech: Crystal Dreams (USA, prototype, earlier), SpaceStation Silicon Valley (USA, rev 1), Top Gear Hyper-Bike (prototype), Top Gear Rally (Asia), Top Gear Rally 2 (prototype 19990831), Turok 3 - Shadow of Oblivion (Europe, prototype 20000606), Wipeout 64 (prototype) [FakeShemp]
• Scooby Doo - Miniature Golf Mystery / Museum Mystery / Haunted Theater [Porchy]
• Barney: Barney Cares / Best Manners Show / Let's Work Together, Blue's Perfect Picnic Spot, Disney No Rumbly In Pooh's Tumbly, Disney Pooh Windy Day, Disney Princess: Jasmine / Mulan / Pocahontas, Disney Princess: The Little Mermaid / Snow White / Beauty and the Beast, Disney's Bambi / Lady and the Tramp / Peter Pan, Disney's Pinocchio / Disney/Pixar Toy Story 2 / The Jungle Book, Disney's The Lion King, Disney's The Little Mermaid, Disney/Pixar Cars / The Incredibles / Monsters Inc., Disney/Pixar Finding Nemo, Dora the Explorer: Dora's Garden Adventure / The Gingerbread Boy / Dora's Art Adventure, Dora's Garden Adventure, Noah's Ark, Petter Rabbit / Jemima Puddle-Duck / Tom Kitten, Scooby-Doo! Miniature Golf Mistery, Sesame Street: Elmo's Colorful Adventure / Grover Stays Up Very Very Late / Me Loves Cookies, Spongebob Squarepants Grand Price Winner!, Spongebob Squarepants Grand Price Winner! / Dora's Garden Adventure / Blue's Perfect Picnic Spot, Thomas & Friends: Cheer up Cranky! / The Big Race / Carnival Capers [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip] Cars (Germany), Das Dschungelbuch (Germany), Findet Nemo (Germany), Der König der Löwen (Germany), Peter Pan (Germany), Winnie Puuh - Ein stürmischer Tag (Germany), Winnie Puuh hat keinen Hunger (Germany) [TeamEurope]
• sdk85: AP-29 Serial I/O Routines [AJR]
• smarttv_cart: Amusement Park [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• telestory_cart:
• Dora the Explorer - En la feria ambulante / Dora va a la escuela (Spanish), Power Rangers Mystic Force - Code Busters / Whispering Voices (UK / USA?) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Cinderella - Cinderella / Beauties in Bloom (USA), Dora the Explorer - At the Carnival / Dora Goes to School (USA), The Lion King - The Lion King / The Lion King II - Simba's Pride (USA), SpongeBob SquarePants - Ice-Cream Dreams / Stop the Presses! (USA), Winnie the Pooh - Bounce Tigger Bounce / Pooh's Honey Tree (USA) [Sean Riddle, TeamEurope]
• Thomas & Friends - Thomas Visits the Toy Shop / Thomas' Milkshake Mix [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]

## Source Changes

• formats/wd177x_dsk.cpp: Allowed derived classes to override the format per track/head. [68bit]
• formats/flex_dsk.cpp: Simplified code, and added support for variants with single-density initial tracks. [68bit]
• formats/os9_dsk.cpp: Added support for variants with single-density initial track and base sector zero. [68bit]
• floptool: Added OS9 disk format. [68bit]
• bus/ss50: Added MFI, OS9 and UniFLEX formats to DC5 floppy drive controller. [68bit]
• Connected interrupts, removed timed interrupt hack, and added two additional floppy drivers.
• Added disassembly override for OS9 system calls.
• Added OS9 Level 1 version 1.2 BIOS option.
• tti.cpp: Made the two firmware revisions BIOS options. [AJR]
• sdk85.cpp improvements: [AJR]
• Made second 8355 into a ROM expansion slot that can load custom 8755 programs.
• Added vectored interrupt and soft reset buttons.
• Improved accuracy of button labels and changed default key mappings.
• jaguar: Eliminated unsafe raw memory pointer use from blitter (fixes several exceptions, including tempst2k). [AJR]
• i8155.cpp: Made timer more efficient by not counting each cycle. [AJR]
• bus/a2bus: Added 8251-based RS-232 serial interface described in BYTE magazine. [AJR]
• Added disassemblers for NEC 78K/0, 78K/I, 78K/II and 78K/III microcontrollers. [AJR]
• naomi.cpp: Made “Gun Sense” board used by hotd2 a separate device. [AJR]
• Predicate command completion interrupt on busy flag having been set.
• Increased HLD idle timeout to fifteen revolutions for variants other than FD1771 and FD1781.
• Removed timing hack, ensuring SL3 is output (required by Pied Piper Communicator 1).
• Corrected keyboard scan rate and logging thereof.
• Corrected OKI M6295 pin 7 level to high (fixes voice pitches).
• Converted to raw screen timing parameters.
• toki.cpp: Converted screen refresh rate to raw timing parameters. [Angelo Salese]
• ddenlovr.cpp: Added coin counters and corrected metadata for all games. [Angelo Salese]
• subsino2.cpp: Fixed missing ron button. [Angelo Salese]
• Synchronized with upstream GENie (addresses GitHub #6248). [Belegdol]
• Converted to use single-pass priority drawing for sprites.
• Fixed I/O writes for systems without NB1414M4.
• twin16.cpp: Restrict sprite drawing to clipping rectangle. [cam900]
• sound/vrc6.cpp, sound/ym2413.cpp: Changed descriptions to match chip markings/part numbers. [cam900]
• Added support for MSM5205 10-bit DAC.
• Derive timing and sample rate from input clock
• Updated notes.
• video/stvvdp1.cpp: Fixed Gouraud shading flag test. [cam900]
• vgmplay.cpp: Fixed YMF262 register mapping and YMF278B volume. [cam900]
• sound/ymf262.cpp: Added support for variants with different clock dividers. [cam900]
• sound/ymf278b.cpp: Fixed FM output rate and clock divider, fixed mixing behavior, and expanded notes. [cam900]
• sound/ymf271.cpp: Corrected envelope release time. [cam900]
• bus/isa/gus.cpp: Calculate GF1 sample rate from input clock. [cam900]
• ics2115.cpp: Calculate sample rate from input clock. [cam900]
• video/deco16ic.cpp: Fixed of-by-one clipping in tilemap drawing. [cam900]
• boogwing.cpp: Improved blending, priority drawing and palette effects. [cam900]
• video/deco_ace.cpp: Use fixed-point palette fade calculation. [cam900]
• gstream.cpp: Implemented per-frame sprite limit. [cam900]
• cpu/z80: Added skeleton LZ8420M device (Z80 with internal RAM and additional I/O). [cam900]
• psikyo.cpp: Derived gunbird clocks from crystal values. [cam900]
• Fixed issue separating nets into independent groups for four-terminal devices without external feedback loops.
• Added current-controlled voltage source (CCVS).
• Improved SPICE format conversion – official TI µA741 model can now be converted without errors.
• Added support for evaluating expressions in parameters when netlist is created.
• Added support for potentiometers to SPICE format conversion.
• sound/mm5837.cpp: Measured frequency versus supply voltage. [Couriersud]
• cpu/ks0164: Added preliminary Samsung KS0164 disassembler. [David Carne, O. Galibert]
• machine/spg2xx_video.cpp: Removed row scroll offset hack. [David Haywood]
• Problematic cases where different games in multi-game systems required different values are fixed.
• nes_vt.cpp: Untangled from NES state class and NES controller bus. [David Haywood]
• cpu/spc700: Fixed TCLR1 and TSET1 operations, and removed page-crossing penalty on Y-relative accesses. [David Viens]
• mjsister.cpp, xyonics.cpp: Hooked up 6845 CRT controllers and added raw screen timing parameters. [Dirk Best]
• machine/mc6844.cpp: Added preliminary MC6855 DMA controller device, based on implementations in drivers. [Edström]
• machine/mc6854.cpp: Added support for external clocks and DMA mode. [Edström]
• cpu/jaguar: Fixed disassembly of movei instruction (GitHub #6314). [ElectronAsh]
• Changed alternate versions of ChessSystem R30, Kasparov RISC and various Mephisto chess computers from BIOS options to clones. [hap]
• machine/spg2xx_audio.cpp: Added preliminary ADPCM36 decoding – significantly improves pballpup. [Lord Nightmare, Ryan Holtz]
• roland_d50.cpp: Added additional ROM versions to d50, d50a and d550 as BIOS options. [Lord Nightmare, anonymous, Erik Gavriluk]
• Also added chip labels and locations, PCB notes, and version strings.
• video/k052109.cpp Fixed and cleaned up tilemap scroll effects (fixes fuusenpn and MT06790). [MetalliC]
• bus/ti99: Added VRAM size option to Enhanced Video Processor card. [Michael Zapf]
• machine/sunplus_gcm394.cpp: Re-worked some of the DMA and NAND Flash handling so that jak_tsm loads more code. [N. Gilbert]
• cpu/xavix2: Added preliminary Xavix 2 CPU emulation and disassembler. [O. Galibert, N. Gilbert]
• cpu/romp: Added preliminary IBM Research/Office Products Division Microprocessor (ROMP) device. [Patrick Mackinlay]
• konendev.cpp: Hooked up H8/3007 “IFU” CPU. [R. Belmont]
• Added a tip on how to enter the debugger to the online documentation. [R. Belmont]
• cpu/m68000: Allow RTE instruction to unwind 68010 bus error (type 1000) stack frames. [R. Belmont]
• bus/nubus: Fixed macse30 Sigma Designs L-View SE/30 PDS card. [R. Belmont]
• apple2.cpp, apple2e.cpp, apple2gs.cpp: Exposed CFFF accesses to slot cards. [R. Belmont]
• bus/a2bus: Added support for Applesurance floppy drive controller card. [R. Belmont, DiskBlitz]
• video/apple2.cpp: Improved monochrome-mode drawing in lores, hires and double lores modes. [R. Belmont]
• Gives correct NTSC color with -video bgfx, effect hlsl, NTSC on, NTSC A and B to 0, scanline length to 39.1 µS.
• uzebox.cpp: Use filename extension to detect UZE format, as some early games lack the identification string. [Robbbert]
• iris3130.cpp: Modernized logging, added preliminary MMU support, and added ROM board support. [Ryan Holtz]
• machine/6840ptm.cpp: Made logging more configurable. [Ryan Holtz, Phil Bennett]
• machine/i8214.cpp: Improved interrupt level check, and added setters for combined B/SGS and R inputs. [Ryan Holtz, Phil Bennett]
• audio/cmi01a.cpp: Derived PTM clocks from /CAS clock – fixes TIM tests in CMITST diagnostics. [Ryan Holtz]
• Improved interrupt handling – nearly all CMIINT tests pass now.
• Hooked up peripherals and MIDI ports on the SMPTE/MIDI board.
• Mapped handlers for the TVT second display board.
• Adjusted video board PTM clocks to be based on /CAS clock – fixes TIM tests in LGTST diagnostics.
• Adjusted master card PTM clock to be based on /CAS clock – fixes TIM tests in MAST diagnostics.
• Hooked up AIC interrupt – all interrupt tests now pass.
• Fixed off-by-one error on Beat Count timer – fixes timing in icanpian, and in shredmjr to some extent.
• Hooked up channel FIQ.
• Hooked up software wave-in channel (used by jak_care for voices).
• cpu/unsp: Implemented MULS and FIR_MOV operations. [Ryan Holtz, N. Gilbert, smf]
• 1942.cpp: Fixed sprite priorities, implemented sprite line buffering, fixed logo on title screen, and improved interrupt timing. [Ryan Holtz, David Haywood, smf, O. Galibert]
• machine/spg2xx_io.cpp: Added watchdog timer support and rudimentary SPI support. [Ryan Holtz]
• machine/i2cmem.cpp: Added 24C04 device. [Ryan Holtz]
• Split spg2xx_jakks.cpp into separate files for plain, game-key and touch variants. [Ryan Holtz]
• spg2xx_jakks.cpp Hooked up jak_batm I²C EEPROM – enables saving. [Ryan Holtz]
• atarittl.cpp: Fixed various errors in stuntcyc netlist. [Ryan Holtz]
• machine/315-6154.cpp: Converted to real PCI host device, and updated NAOMI DIMM board accordingly. [Samuele Zannoli]
• superga2.cpp: Fixed player 2 inputs for kuzmich. [xotmatrix]
• atarigx2.cpp: Corrected program ROM labels for motofren. [Brian Troha]
• tsamurai.cpp: Corrected ROM labels for the Ring Fighter sets and added PCB locations to them. [Brian Troha]
• snk.cpp: Corrected ROM labels for fitegolfu. [Brian Troha]
• midzeus.cpp: Decapped PIC microcontroller for thegrid. [Caps0ff]
• sdk80.cpp: Replaced monitor program with corrected version (GitHub #6324). [Colin Douglas Howell, Robbbert]
• isbc8010.cpp: Corrected an OCR issue in monitor ROM that prevented M command from working. [Colin Douglas Howell, Robbbert]
• naomi.cpp: Dumped Sega Atomiswave BIOS. [CoolFox, MetalliC]
• model3.cpp: Re-dumped ecap ROMs. [coolmod, MetalliC]
• vsmile_cart.xml: Added some French releases to the list of undumped cartridges. [DisizDream]
• n64.xml: Added a lot more PCB documentation, and replaced bad dumps with re-dumps. [FakeShemp]
• esq5505.cpp: Added PCB layout for SQ-2. [Guru]
• psikyo.cpp: Measured some frequencies for s1945, including horizontal and vertical video sync. [Guru]
• konendev.cpp: Mapped additional inputs, expanded documentation, and cleaned up code. [Heihachi_73]
• bloodbro_ms.cpp: Dumped some of the PROMs and PLDs for bloodbrom. [jordigahan, ClawGrip]
• gameboy.xml, nes.xml, snes.xml: Corrected some metadata and added some parent/clone relationships. [quasiscroto]
• fmtowns_cd.xml: Re-tested software, and updated metadata and notes. [r09]
• fmtowns_cd.xml: Switched to dumps with proper track indexes and offset correction. [redump.org, r09]
• 3x3eyes, 4dboxing, branmark, chasehq, fsc4, fsc5, libido7, lifendth, loom, marble, mcosmo, msdet2, mspectre, nadia, nova, raiden, rance4, srmp23, srmp4, ssf2, tnzs, vaindrem, vaindrm2, yojusenk, yumimimx.
• ssv.cpp: Identified ROM boards for Monster Slider, Super Real Mahjong P7 and Gourmet Battle Quiz Ryorioh CooKing. [twistedsymphony]
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